# GLOBAL PISTACHIO

# Group members :

Sümeyra YILDIRIM

İlknur SALMAN

Gülşah OKUR

Ethem ÖZEN

Hüseyin DEMİRCAN

Şilan REYHANOĞULLARI

ADVISOR : Prof. Dr. Mehmet D. Öner

INTRODUCTION

İLKNUR SALMAN

FACTORY LOCATION

NAME OF COMPANY : Global Group Co. Inc.

MAIN ADRESS : Nizip Industrial Zone

CAPACITY : 20000 kg raw

material/day

CLOSED AREA : 5 000 m2

AREA OF PLANT : 12 300 m2

OPERATION TIME : 16 hour/day

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES : 60 people

WORKING CONDITION: 2 Shifts/day

INTRODUCTION

The pistachio, Pistacia vera in the Anacardiaceae family, is a small tree originally from Iran and Iraq.

Properties of Turkish Pistachio Cultivars

FLOWCHART OF PISTACHIO

FLOWCHART OF SPLIT PISTACHIO

FLOWCHART OF NONSPLIT PISTACHIO

ŞİLAN REYHANOĞULLARI

Material Balance

Silo Dimension

Vacuum Power

MATERIAL BALANCE

Split Pistachio

Non-Split Pistachio

SILO AND SILO THICKNESS

V = volume of pistachio(m3)

M = mass of pistachio(kg)

ρ = bulk density of pistachio nut(kg/m3)

H = height of tank

D = diameter of tank

V=M/ρ & V=π/4*D²*H

H=4/3*D & V=π/3*D³=M/ρ

M=3100 kg ;ρ =557,6 kg/m³

V=M/ρ =3100/557,6= 5,56 m³

V= 5,56*0,2+5,56= 6,67 m³ (Our safety factor is %20)

6,67=π/3*D³ H=4/3*D => D=1,85 m and H= 2,47 m

(for soaking silo)

Determination of shell thickness

Working pressure

Ptotal = Patm + H*g*d

H = height(m)

g = standard acceleration of gravity(m/s2)

d = density of material(kg/m3)

Shell Thickness (ts )

Ts = P*(D+C) /(2*Se-P)

P is working pressure (psi)

D is diameter(m)

C is allowance for corrosion(m) => C=1/16 in from Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineering by Peters, p. 542.

S is ultimate tensile strength (psi)

e is efficiency (For double-butt joint, e = 0.80 )

Working Pressure

Ptotal = Patm + H*g*d

Ptotal = 1+ 2,47*9,81*1100/1000/101,32

Ptotal = 1,26 atm = 18,56 psi (working pressure)

S is ultimate tensile strength(kPa)

Where:

Su = ultimate tensile strength Fa = radiograph factor

Fr = stress relieving factor Fs = ultimate strength factor

Fm = material factor

Su is obtained from this table

Su=9000 psi

Do, outside diameter

Di, inside diameter

ts, shell thichness

L, crown radius (in)

kr, knuckle radius (in)

R, ratio

W, from table

W value is taken from this table

Vacuum Pump Power Estimation for Packaging Machine

Power = P1*q1*ln(P2/P1)

P1, intake pressure

P2, delivery pressure

q1, m³gas/s that vacuum pump intake

HÜSEYİN DEMİRCAN

Piping and Pumping

Conveyors

Pump Power Calculations

CONVEYING SYSTEMS

T: carrying capacity (kg/s)

a: average crossescional area of the material, (m2)

b: bulk density of material, (kg/m3)

v: speed of conveyor belt, (m/s)

bo: belt width (m)

Total Power of Belt Conveyor

Theoretical power necessary to drive a belt conveyor is composed of

1.Power required to drive the empty conveyor, We

2.Power required to move the material/load against friction of the rotating parts, Wm

3.Power required to raise/elevate or lower the load, Wr

The total power required (WT) = We + Wm ± Wr

The sign (+) is for raising and (-) for descending (lowering) the material.

Driving efficiency is considered as 90 %.

The force required to move the empty belt, Ne:

Ne = total weight of belt on idlers x friction coefficient

Ne = mi*lt* g* µe

lt = conveyor length, (m)

mi = mass of belt/m (kg/m)

µe = friction coefficient of ball bearing idlers: ~ 0.3

We = Ne*v = mi*(lt + 0.10lt)*g* µe *v

Power required to convey material, Wm:

Wm = mm*lt*g*µm *v

mm : mass of material/unit length (kg/m)

mm = T/v,

Wm = (T/v)*lt*g* µm *v = T*lt*g* µm,

(µm ~ 0.3 – 0.4).

* Power required to raise or lower the material, Wr:

Wr = T*g*h*(1.5)

h: height, (m) and 1.5 is the safety factor.

WT = We + Wm ± Wr

Bucket Elevator

Carrying capacity of the elevator:

T = (c*b*v)/p

c: volume of material in each bucket, (m3)

b: bulk density of material (kg/m3)

v: speed of elevator (m/s)

p: bucket spacing, space between buckets, (m)

Power Requirement

Main power required is for raising the material through height h

Wr = T*g*h, (power required to raise the material)

Total power required WT = 2*T*g*h*(1.5)

* Drive efficiency of motor is assumed as 75 %.

Screw Conveyor

Carrying capacity of the screw conveyor:

Capacity, T = a*b*v

a = (k*π*d2)/4

d: diameter of trough (150 – 750 mm)

k: loading factor (30%)

v: average speed of material (m/s)

v = n*p

n: rotary speed, rpm (50- 100 rpm)

p: pitch ~ diameter of trough d, then,

v = n*d

Power Requirement

Force required to move material = (T*g*lt*µ)/v

µ: friction factor

Motor power = P =(3*T*g*lt*µ*v)/(Efficiency*v), then,

Motor power (capacity) = [(3*T*g*lt*µ)/Efficiency]*(1.5)

ETHEM ÖZEN

Cold Storage

Dryer

GÜLŞAH OKUR

Hygiene and Sanitation

Waste Treatment

HYGIENE AND SANITATION

Hygiene : special and general cleaning require to reduce the risk of infection and minimize this infection to unavailable amount to obtain a healthy life.

Sanitation : defined as all cleaning applications to create and maintenance hygiene.

HYGIENE AND SANITATION

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT:

Grasses are far from the company at least for 10 m.

Colors of the walls are open to keep reptiles far from the company.

Each opening of the entrance is covered by flyswatter.

Hyginene corridor is constituted.

Personnel hygiene is important.

In every shift the engineers detect the matals.

Raw materials and products are placed over palette with a distance 30-40 cm from the walls.

Pesticide are controlled weekly.

After all sanitation completed , everywhere is conrolled by ATP hygiene test.

PERSONAL HYGIENE

Personal hygiene:

ocare of hands

othe use of protective clothing

ousing hygiene line entering of production part

Waste treatment

Pistachio shells are used in a few areas;

-animal feed,

-textile

-fuel

-furniture industry

…