Group members :
ADVISOR : Prof. Dr. Mehmet D. Öner
NAME OF COMPANY : Global Group Co. Inc.
MAIN ADRESS : Nizip Industrial Zone
CAPACITY : 20000 kg raw
CLOSED AREA : 5 000 m2
AREA OF PLANT : 12 300 m2
OPERATION TIME : 16 hour/day
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES : 60 people
WORKING CONDITION: 2 Shifts/day
The pistachio, Pistacia vera in the Anacardiaceae family, is a small tree originally from Iran and Iraq.
Properties of Turkish Pistachio Cultivars
FLOWCHART OF PISTACHIO
FLOWCHART OF SPLIT PISTACHIO
FLOWCHART OF NONSPLIT PISTACHIO
SILO AND SILO THICKNESS
V = volume of pistachio(m3)
M = mass of pistachio(kg)
ρ = bulk density of pistachio nut(kg/m3)
H = height of tank
D = diameter of tank
V=M/ρ & V=π/4*D²*H
H=4/3*D & V=π/3*D³=M/ρ
M=3100 kg ;ρ =557,6 kg/m³
V=M/ρ =3100/557,6= 5,56 m³
V= 5,56*0,2+5,56= 6,67 m³ (Our safety factor is %20)
6,67=π/3*D³ H=4/3*D => D=1,85 m and H= 2,47 m
(for soaking silo)
Determination of shell thickness
Ptotal = Patm + H*g*d
H = height(m)
g = standard acceleration of gravity(m/s2)
d = density of material(kg/m3)
Shell Thickness (ts )
Ts = P*(D+C) /(2*Se-P)
P is working pressure (psi)
D is diameter(m)
C is allowance for corrosion(m) => C=1/16 in from Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineering by Peters, p. 542.
S is ultimate tensile strength (psi)
e is efficiency (For double-butt joint, e = 0.80 )
Ptotal = Patm + H*g*d
Ptotal = 1+ 2,47*9,81*1100/1000/101,32
Ptotal = 1,26 atm = 18,56 psi (working pressure)
S is ultimate tensile strength(kPa)
Su = ultimate tensile strength Fa = radiograph factor
Fr = stress relieving factor Fs = ultimate strength factor
Fm = material factor
Su is obtained from this table
Do, outside diameter
Di, inside diameter
ts, shell thichness
L, crown radius (in)
kr, knuckle radius (in)
W, from table
W value is taken from this table
Vacuum Pump Power Estimation for Packaging Machine
Power = P1*q1*ln(P2/P1)
P1, intake pressure
P2, delivery pressure
q1, m³gas/s that vacuum pump intake
Piping and Pumping
Pump Power Calculations
T: carrying capacity (kg/s)
a: average crossescional area of the material, (m2)
b: bulk density of material, (kg/m3)
v: speed of conveyor belt, (m/s)
bo: belt width (m)
Total Power of Belt Conveyor
Theoretical power necessary to drive a belt conveyor is composed of
1.Power required to drive the empty conveyor, We
2.Power required to move the material/load against friction of the rotating parts, Wm
3.Power required to raise/elevate or lower the load, Wr
The total power required (WT) = We + Wm ± Wr
The sign (+) is for raising and (-) for descending (lowering) the material.
Driving efficiency is considered as 90 %.
The force required to move the empty belt, Ne:
Ne = total weight of belt on idlers x friction coefficient
Ne = mi*lt* g* µe
lt = conveyor length, (m)
mi = mass of belt/m (kg/m)
µe = friction coefficient of ball bearing idlers: ~ 0.3
We = Ne*v = mi*(lt + 0.10lt)*g* µe *v
Power required to convey material, Wm:
Wm = mm*lt*g*µm *v
mm : mass of material/unit length (kg/m)
mm = T/v,
Wm = (T/v)*lt*g* µm *v = T*lt*g* µm,
(µm ~ 0.3 – 0.4).
* Power required to raise or lower the material, Wr:
Wr = T*g*h*(1.5)
h: height, (m) and 1.5 is the safety factor.
WT = We + Wm ± Wr
Carrying capacity of the elevator:
T = (c*b*v)/p
c: volume of material in each bucket, (m3)
b: bulk density of material (kg/m3)
v: speed of elevator (m/s)
p: bucket spacing, space between buckets, (m)
Main power required is for raising the material through height h
Wr = T*g*h, (power required to raise the material)
Total power required WT = 2*T*g*h*(1.5)
* Drive efficiency of motor is assumed as 75 %.
Carrying capacity of the screw conveyor:
Capacity, T = a*b*v
a = (k*π*d2)/4
d: diameter of trough (150 – 750 mm)
k: loading factor (30%)
v: average speed of material (m/s)
v = n*p
n: rotary speed, rpm (50- 100 rpm)
p: pitch ~ diameter of trough d, then,
v = n*d
Force required to move material = (T*g*lt*µ)/v
µ: friction factor
Motor power = P =(3*T*g*lt*µ*v)/(Efficiency*v), then,
Motor power (capacity) = [(3*T*g*lt*µ)/Efficiency]*(1.5)
Hygiene and Sanitation
HYGIENE AND SANITATION
Hygiene : special and general cleaning require to reduce the risk of infection and minimize this infection to unavailable amount to obtain a healthy life.
Sanitation : defined as all cleaning applications to create and maintenance hygiene.
HYGIENE AND SANITATION
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT:
Grasses are far from the company at least for 10 m.
Colors of the walls are open to keep reptiles far from the company.
Each opening of the entrance is covered by flyswatter.
Hyginene corridor is constituted.
Personnel hygiene is important.
In every shift the engineers detect the matals.
Raw materials and products are placed over palette with a distance 30-40 cm from the walls.
Pesticide are controlled weekly.
After all sanitation completed , everywhere is conrolled by ATP hygiene test.
ocare of hands
othe use of protective clothing
ousing hygiene line entering of production part
Pistachio shells are used in a few areas;