Palm & Palm Kernel Oil

FE 401 FOOD TECHNOLOGY

PALM & PALM KERNEL OIL • Muhammet Çağrı SEÇMEN • Fatma PARLAK • Mustafa PATPAT • İbrahim Halil SÖNMEZ • Merve PALABIYIK • Onur SEVİNDİK ADVISOR: Prof. Dr Fahrettin GÖĞÜŞ

WHERE IS THE PALM OIL GROWN ? From 1990s to present time,the area under palm oil cultivation had increased by about % 43.Today,seventeen countries produce palm oil,though Malaysia and Indonesia account for 85% of global palm oil production. The top five producing country: • Indonesia • Malaysia • Thailand • Nigeria

WHAT IS PALM OIL? Obtained from fruit (both the flesh and the kernel) of the oil palm tree Vegetable oil production around the world totals over 144 million tonnes per year, of which over 47 million tonnes is palm oil.Along with soy oil,palm oil makes up %60 of world production.

HISTORY Human use of oil palms may date as far back as 5,000 years; in the late 1800s, archaeologists discovered a substance that they concluded was originally palm oil in a tomb at Abydos dating back to 3,000 BCE. It is believed that Arab traders brought the oil palm to Egypt. ØPalm oil from Elaeis guineensis has long been recognized in West and Central African countries. ØPalm oil formed the basis of soap

NUTRITION OF PALM OIL Palm oil naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. Along with coconut oil,palm oil is one of the few higly saturated vegatable fats.It is semi- solid at room temperature and contains several saturated and unsaturated fats in the form of

NUTRITION AND PRODUCTS Palm oil gives its name to the 16- carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid.Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a constituent of palm oil. ØUnrefined palm oil is a large natural source of tcotrienol part of the vitamin E family.

Fatty Acid composition of COMPOSITION(%) palm oil Lauric acid,max 1.0 Myristic acid 0.5-1.5 Palmitic acid 41.0-47.0 Stearic acid 4.0-5.0 Oleic acid 37.0-41.0 Linoleic acid 9.0-11.0 Arachidic acid,max 0.7

Line (A) is for direct screw-pressing without kernel pre-treatment; Ø Line (B) is for partial kernel pre-treatment followed by screw- pressing; Ø Line C is for complete pre-treatment followed by screw-pressing

Harvesting technique and handling effects Harvesting involves the cutting of fruits the bunch from the tree and allowing it to fall to the ground by gravity.

To dismount the load, the tendency is to dump contents of the basket onto the ground.

Bunch reception Fresh fruit arrives from the field as bunches or loose fruit. Ø The fresh fruit is normally emptied into wooden boxes suitable for weighing on a scale so that quantities of fruit arriving at the processing site may be checked.

(removal of fruit from the bunches) The fresh fruit bunch consists of fruit embedded in spikelets growing on a main stem. Manual threshing is achieved by cutting the fruit-laden spikelets from the bunch stem with an axe or machete and then separating the fruit from the spikelets by hand. Ø In a mechanised system a rotating drum or fixed drum equipped with rotary beater bars detach the fruit from the bunch, leaving the spikelets on the stem.

Sterilization of bunches Sterilization or cooking means the use of high- temperature wet-heat treatment of loose fruit. Ø Cooking normally uses hot water; sterilization uses pressurized steam. Ø Fruit cooking weakens the pulp structure, softening it and making it easier to detach the fibrous material and its contents during the digestion process.

When high-pressure steam is used for sterilization, the heat causes the moisture in the nuts to expand. When the pressure is reduced the contraction of the nut leads to the detachment of the kernel from the shell wall, thus loosening the kernels within their shells. From the foregoing, it is obvious that sterilization (cooking) is one of

Digestion of the fruit Digestion is the process of releasing the palm oil in the fruit through the rupture or breaking down of the oil- bearing cells. Ø The digester commonly used consists of a steam- heated cylindrical vessel fitted with a central rotating shaft carrying a number of beater (stirring) arms. Ø Through the action of the rotating beater arms the fruit is pounded. Ø Pounding, or digesting the fruit at high temperature, helps to reduce the viscosity of the oil, destroys the fruits’ outer covering (exocarp), and completes the disruption of the oil cells already begun in the sterilization phase

Cleaning Kernels must first be cleaned of foreign materials that may cause Ø damage to the screw-presses Increasing maintenance costs Ø down time Ø Contamination of products

Size reduction Flaking A swimming The kernel fragments hammer subsequently are subjected grinder,breaker to flaking in a roller mill. rolls A large roller mill can consist of up to five rollers breaks the kernels mounted vertically above one into small another, each revolving at fragments 200-300 rpm. The thickness of kernel cakes is progressively Increase surface reduced as it travels from the area of the kernels top roller to the bottom. This progressive rolling initiates rupturing of cell walls. The flakes that leave the

Steam conditioning The kernel flakes are then conveyed to a stack cooker for steam conditioning, the purpose of which is to: Øadjust the moisture content of the meal to an optimum level; rupture cell walls (initiated by rolling); reduce viscosity of oil; coagulate the protein in the meal to facilitate separation of the oil from protein materials.

Solvent Extraction is a process which involves extracting oil from oil-bearing materials by treating it with a low boiler solvent instead of extracting the oils by mechanical pressing methods ØBecause of the high percentage of recovered oil, solvent extraction has become the most popular method of extraction of oils and fats The hexane is reused for extraction. The low boiling point of hexane (67°C / 152°F) and the high solubility of oils and fats in it are the properties

The materials(for pretreatment) are sent to rotary extraction by the scraper conveyor, extracted by the solvent so that oil fats can be dissolved After this step, you will get meal and mixed oil,the solvent will separate from the meal. Ø Then the solvent goes to condenser and is recycled to rotary extraction. ØConsequently, after the solvent is completely evaporated and left with purified oil fats, the crude palm oil is gained.

Especially for Palm Kernel Oil processing ØCracking the kernel ØSeperating out the nuts Extracting the oil

Mechanical extraction processes are suitable for both small- and large- capacity operations Kernel pretreatment Screw-pressing Oil clarification

Extracted materials comes as in the form of mixture of palm oil, water, cell debris, fibrous material and ‘non- oily solids’. In order to overcome these impurities *DILUTIO we do clarification, N (as in 3:1 ratio) Addition of hot water into viscous flow. Provides a barrier causing the heavy solids to fall to the bottom of the container while the lighter oil droplets flow through the watery mixture

The moisture content of the oil must be reduced to 0.15 to 0.25 percent. ØRe-heating the decanted oil in a cooking pot and carefully skimming off the dried oil from any engrained dirt removes any residual moisture. Due to high content of water in the purified crude oil, a treatment process referred as oil drying and cooling is required. The purified crude oil goes into a vacuum evaporation system.Subsequently, the dried crude oil is kept in storage tanks and sold to an oil

Reccomended temperatures during the transportation and at a time of loading/discharge and storage of palm oil products ; TRANSPORTATION : Minimum 32˚C – Maximum 40˚C. LOADING / DISCHARGE : Minimum 50˚C – Maximum LONG TERM STORAGE ( SHORT TERM STORAGE 55˚C. > 2 WEEKS) ( < 2 WEEKS) STORAGE : Minimum 37˚C – Maximum 45˚C. Should be maintained at To prevent excessive ambient temperature and crystallization, the oil should heating should be be maintained within the completely turned off. If the temperature range of 5-10 ˚C oil becomes solid, extreme above the melting point. care should be taken during the initial heating to ensure that localized overheating or

Quality specifications •Guarantee of parameters such as –FFA –Moisture & Impurities –Iodine Value –Colour –SFC •Others aspects of quality

Important Parameters • FFA •Anisidine value • Apparent density (50ºC) •Fatty acid composition • Refractive index (50ºC) •Colour •Iodine value • Moisture & Impurities •DOBI • Saponification value •Slip melting point •Total carotenoids • Peroxide value • Unsaponifiable matter

CHEMICAL MEAN RANGE CHARECTERIST ICS Saponification 195.7 190.1-201.7 value (mg KOH/ g oil) Unsaponifiable 0.51 0.15-0.99 matter (%) Iodine 52.9 50.6-55.1 value(wijs) Slip melting 34.2 30.8-37.6 point©

According to Standards Parameter According to TSE According to PORAM FFA (as % palmitic 0.25 0.1 acid, max) Moisture & 0.2 0.1 Impurities (% , max) o Melting point ( C) 33-39 33-39 Iodine value (Wijs) 50-55 50-55 Colour(5 ¼ inch 6 Red 3 or 6 Red max. Lovibond, max)

CONTROL POINTS and CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS

Uses of Palm Oil As mentioned, the oil palm produces two types of oils, palm oil from the fibrous mesocarp and palm kernel oil from the palm kernel. Palm oil and palm kernel oil have a wide range of applications; about 80% are used of food applications while the rest is feedstock for a number of non-food applications. Among the food uses, refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) olein is used mainly as cooking and frying oils, shortenings and margarine while RBD stearin is used for the production of shortenings and margarine. RBD palm oil, which is the unfractionated palm oil, is used for producing margarine, shortenings, vanaspati (vegetable ghee), frying fats and ice cream.

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