Nuts Processing ( Dr. Mustafa BAYRAM )

FE 401 FOOD TECHNOLOGY NUTS PROCESSING Prof. Dr. Mustafa BAYRAM University of Gaziantep, Faculty of Engineering Department of Food Engineering 27310-Gaziantep-TÜRKİYE Rev3-Nov 17, 2014

HAZELNUT

Hazelnut Hazelnut harvest Roasting Drying in farm Peeling with rubber disc Removing cover/ husk Roasting kernel Hazelnut inshell Cleaning (destoning-metal sep.) Sliced Calibration flour Cracking with stone mill acc. to calibration paste Separation shell Natural kernel

Raw Kernels PHYSICAL SPECIFICATION SIZE Over Size : Max. 5 % Under Size : Max. 5 % FOREIGN MATTER : Max. 0.25% shell pieces per tone Free of stone, wood, glass etc. ROTTEN : Max. 2 % SHRIVELLED : Max. 4 % TOUCHED : Max. 7 % BROKEN : Max. 1 % MOISTURE : Max. 6 % CHEMICAL SPECIFICATION FREE FATTY ACID : Max. 1 % PROXIDE VALUE : Max. 5 Meg/Kg AFLATOXIN : B1 : Max.2 ppb Total: Max. 4 ppb

Roasted Blanched Whole ROASTED BLANCHED WHOLE PHYSICAL SPECIFICATION SIZE Over Size : Max. 5 % Under Size : Max. 5 % ROTTEN : Max. 1 % SHRIVELLED : Max. 2 % TOUCHED : Max. 8 % BROKEN : Max. 2 % FOREIGN MATTER : Max. 5 shell pieces per tone Target : Zero Free of stone, wood, glass etc. SKIN CONTENT : 5 % to 20 % (According to buyers need) MOISTURE : Max. 2.8 % CHEMICAL SPECIFICATION FREE FATTY ACID : Max. 1 % PROXIDE VALUE : Max. 5 Meg/Kg AFLATOXIN : B1 : Max.2 ppb Total: Max. 4 ppb MICROBIOLOGICAL LIMITS T.P.C : Max. 2000 ( C.F.U /g ) COLIFORM : Max. 10 ( C.F.U /g ) MOULD : Max. 50 ( C.F.U /g ) YEAST : Max. 50 ( C.F.U /g ) E. COLI : Negative ( C.F.U /g ) STAPH. AUREUS : Negative (C.F.U. /g ) Dr. MBayram-mbayram@gantep.edu.tr SALMONELLA : Negative ( C.F.U / 25 g )

Roasted Chopped/Diced ROASTED CHOPPED/DICED PHYSICAL SPECIFICATION SIZE Over Size : Max. 5 % Under Size : Max. 5 % FOREIGN MATTER : 20 shell pieces per tone Target : Zero Free of stone, wood, glass etc. SKIN CONTENT : 5 % to 20 % (According to buyers need) MOISTURE : Roasted : Max. 2.8 Blanched : Min. 3.2 % CHEMICAL SPECIFICATION FREE FATTY ACID : Max. 1 % PROXIDE VALUE : Max. 5 Meg/Kg AFLATOXIN : B1 : Max.2 ppb Total: Max. 4 ppb MICROBIOLOGICAL LIMITS T.P.C : Max. 2000 ( C.F.U /g ) COLIFORM : Max. 10 ( C.F.U /g ) MOULD : Max. 50 ( C.F.U /g ) YEAST : Max. 50 ( C.F.U /g ) E. COLI : Negative ( C.F.U /g ) STAPH. AUREUS : Negative (C.F.U. /g ) SALMONELLA : Negative ( C.F.U / 25 g )

BLG arge Co. Natural Chopped Natural Chopped NATURAL CHOPPED PHYSICAL SPECIFICATION SIZE Over Size : Max. 5 % Under Size : Max. 5 % FOREIGN MATTER : 40 shell pieces per tone Free of stone, wood, glass etc. MOISTURE : 6 % CHEMICAL SPECIFICATION FREE FATTY ACID : Max. 1 % PROXIDE VALUE : Max. 5 Meg/Kg AFLATOXIN : B1 : Max.2 ppb Total: Max. 4 ppb

Roasted Meal and Blanched (Powder) ROASTED BLANCHED MEAL MOISTURE : Roasted : Max. 2.8 Blanched : Min. 3.2 % CHEMICAL SPECIFICATION FREE FATTY ACID : Max. 1 % PROXIDE VALUE : Max. 5 Meg/Kg AFLATOXIN : B1 : Max.2 ppb Total: Max. 4 ppb MICROBIOLOGICAL LIMITS T.P.C : Max. 2000 ( C.F.U /g ) COLIFORM : Max. 10 ( C.F.U /g ) MOULD : Max. 50 ( C.F.U /g ) YEAST : Max. 50 ( C.F.U /g ) E. COLI : Negative ( C.F.U /g ) STAPH. AUREUS : Negative (C.F.U. /g ) SALMONELLA : Negative ( C.F.U / 25 g )

PISTACHIO NUTS_ ANTEP FISTIĞI

GENERAL PROCESS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANTEP AND AMERICAN/IRANIAN/ITALIAN ETC. PISTACHIO NUTS PROCESSING

BLG arge Co. AMERICAN Dry processing ANTEP Fresh processing (Dried under sun- Turkish type)

ANTEP Dry pistachio Fresh pistachio AMERICAN (%8-10 m.c.) (%30-35 m.c.) (%30-35 m.c.) Unhulled and empty Risk: -Water m.o. Risk -Pistachio soil m.o. risk – m.o. Growth during soaking

Separation and Classification SPLIT / UNSPLIT SEPARATION SPLIT UNSPLIT ACOUSTIC AND NEEDLE SEPARATORS Split Unsplit UNSPLIT SPLIT

USAGE OF SPLIT AND UNSPLIT UNSPLIT: -Can be split by machine or hand SPLIT: (rısk!!!) -Salted and roasted -Can be used for kernel (paste/chopped/sauce) -OR RE-SPLIT

PROCESS DETAILS (Next 3 Slayts) • ANTEP • AMERICAN

Harvesting Drying with hull ANTEP METHOD Storage Soaking Dehulling Hull Drying Storage Split Pistachio nuts Separation (Splitting Unspit and unsplitting) Pistachio nuts Salting Sieving Roasting Peeling (optional) Cooling Drying Sorting-Control Cutting Packaging (optional) Sorting-Control Packaging

AMERICAN METHOD

D r . M B a y r a m – m b a y r a m @ g a n t e p . e d u . Şekil 1. Baklavalık Antep Fıstığı Üretim Akış Şeması (kernel Şekil 2. Kavrulmuş Antep Fıstığı Yapımı Üretim Akış t pistachio) r Şeması (Roasted pistachio nut)

General risk Open processing BIRD M.C. MOISTURE CONTENT controls PERSONAL CONVEYORS FOR ALL AFLATOXIN SYSTEM WATER CONTAMINATION (no rest/no deposit) HAIR-STONE-METAL INSECT (especially for kernel “chocolate”

FUTURE • As paste • In chocolate industry • Sauce industy • Hygene • Ice cream • As roasted-sauced nut

OTHERS A. Toothache relief – Resin used in Europe and N. America. B. Hardening of gums – Mastic (chewed substance) used to prevent periodontal disease. C. Pistacia mutica – “Turk terebinth” Gum used to make chewing gum in Iran. D. Blood clotting agent – Gum used in Europe and the Middle East. E. Husks – used in India for dying or tanning; made into marmalade in Iran; used as fertilizer in many areas. F. Folk medicine – Pistachios have been reported as a remedy for: Scirrhus and sclerosis of the liver, abdominal ailments, abscess, bruises and sores, chest ailments, circulation problems, and other problems. Powdered pistachio root in oil is used for children’s cough in Algeria. Leaves were used to enhance fertility in Lebanon, and Arabs consider the nuts an aphrodisiac. G. Wood – is good for carving, cabinetry, and firewood.

Cashew Processing

Walnut AND Chestnut Processing Walnut & Chestnut – Cleaning – Screening – de-husker – then nuts are separated through an air leg separator. – When required walnuts are directed into a huller and drum washer. – Nuts then pass to the drying , – inspecting and size grading section.

Bin tipper, brusher, and roller inspection table. Chestnut de-husking and trash separating line.

AFLATOXIN AND MICROORGANISM PROBLEMS

AFLATOXIN AND PISTACHIO Risk period: Last harvesting period Raining Damage on the hull Dust Sun drying RH: 85 % T: 25-35C High m.c. On dried product Time for aflatoxin growth: 1-5 days Dark and humit storage areas Bad drying Accumulation in conveyors Bad tempering-soaking Long term resting

0.7 ppb B1+0.7 ppb G1 34 ppb B1+34 ppb G1 Due to low consumption daily, Pistachio is low risky than main foods

ANALYSIS • TLC • ELISA • HPLC • Rapid kits l Problems: l Solid particle àSampling “homogeneous sample” l Wet sample preparation ***(better)

THANK YOU JUST EAT BLG arge Co.


Facebook Yorumları

Bir Cevap Yazın