Instructor: Prof.Dr. Sevim KAYA
Submitted by: Merve AYDINGÜLER
Mehmet Lütfi GÜZEL
Turkish delight (lokum) is a sugar-based jelly-like confection containing starch with a gel former.
One of the traditional Turkish foods
Consumed as a dessert
“rahat ul-hulküm” in Ottoman Turkish,
The sweet as it is known today was invented by Bekir Effendi, who moved from Kastamonu to Constantinople (now Istanbul) and opened his confectionary shop in 1776.
It has been known in Anatolia since circa 15th century, but 17th century within the boundaries of Ottoman Empire.
In Europe, it started to be known as “Turkish Delight” in 19th century by means of an English traveler.
In the earlier production of lokum,
Honey and pekmez were used as sweeteners instead of sugar
Flour was used to hold water and give texture instead of starch with with rose water, lemon peel and bitter orange as the most common flavors (red, yellow and green)
Color and flavour additives
Sugars are an important ingredient in many starch-based foods
Affect properties such as sweetness, texture, colour, styling and etc.
Hold water and give texture.
For thickening and gelling.
Corn starch that have high amount of amylose (50-80%) creates white, rapid and strong gel.
Acid-modified starch is the best one for lokum production
Acid modified starch
Acid-treated starch, also called thin boiling starch, is prepared by treating starch or starch granules with inorganic acids, e.g. hydrochloric acid breaking down the starch molecule and thus reducing the viscosity.
Why modIfIed starch used
softer and bright texture
require less water
strong gelling characteristics
achieve cold water solubility
During cooking to prevent crystallization by converting sucrose to invert sugar and supply sweetener taste
Citric and tartaric acid are used
Citric acid has high water solubility
Using tartaric acid makes lokum softer and in high stability of lokum
Citric acid is produced and generally used in Turkey
Soft water increases quality
Soft water is treated water in which the include high amount of cation (positively charged ion) of sodium
Some producers use rose water
Color AND FLAVOR additives
The flavoring agents;
– natural→ from natural materials by physical, enzymatic, microbiological ways
– nature identical → chemical equivalent of natural flavors.
– artificial flavoring agents→ from the synthesis that not found in nature by oneself.
flavoring agents ;
-mastic – grated coconut
-cocoa – crusty fruits
-chocolate – dried fruits
Used for prevent color loss during processing and storage
Strengthen the weak color
Open vessel (boiler)
CITRIC ACID 0.03 %
LOKUM PRODUCTION PROCESSES
Preparing Sugar Syrup and Starch Milk
Mixing and Cooking
Pouring and Shaping
sugar syrup and starch milk
Sugar Syrup Sugar + Water (33.7%)
Starch Milk Corn Starch + Water( 66.3 %)
Mixing and cooking
Prepared sugar syrup and starch milk are mixed continuously by an electric paddle.
Then, citric acid is added into the vessel to prevent crystallization by converting sucrose to invert sugar.
The mixture in the vessel is started to cook by increasing the temperature of mixture to 125ºC for 2-2.5 h.
Various flavours are added to the mixture in the open vessel before cooling and mixed.
POURING AND SHAPING
Poured into molds after adding the required flavour addition.
Wooden and stainless steel molds are used to shape the lokum.
Crusting and cracking of lokum could be prevented by pouring the lokum dough into a greasy metal pan.
Cooked mixture in the molds are placed in the roofs and waited for 24 hours at room temperature for cooling and formation lokum texture.
Cooled lokum is put on cutting tables with dusting in icing sugar or starch or coconut powder.
Cutting of lokum is done by hand or machine.
Whether with hand or machine, lokums generally are cut into a cube shape with 2.5–3 cm edges.
After cutting the shaped lokums are put into the different size and capacity of boxes.
RAW MATERIALS PROPERTIES
¤increase product quality
¤supply machine quality
¤increase shelf life of product
Amylose and amylopectin content
Free from ımpurity
MIXING AND COOKING
Viscosity of lokum dough
Soluble solid content
PROPERTIES OF FINISHED PRODUCT
APPEARANCE→maintain its shape
→no foreign material
→soft and slippery in mouth
FLAVOUR→specific taste and odor
→no unwanted flavour
CHEMICALS →Arsenic (As) max 1 mg/kg
→ Copper (Cu) max 10 mg/kg
→ Lead (Pb) max 2 mg/kg
MICROBIOLOGICAL → Total bacteria max 100000 cfu/ml
→ Fecal coliform None
→ Salmonella None
(From “TS 8444”)
Prof. Dr. Sevim KAYA