Lokum

LOKUM
žInstructor: Prof.Dr. Sevim KAYA
žSubmitted by: Merve AYDINGÜLER
Mehmet Lütfi GÜZEL
Hüseyin DEMİRCAN
Derya GÜNBİL
İsmail DEMİR
İlknur SALMAN
žLOKUM definition
žTurkish delight (lokum) is a sugar-based jelly-like confection containing starch with a gel former.
žLOKUM HISTORY
žOne of the traditional Turkish foods
žConsumed as a dessert
ž“rahat ul-hulküm” in Ottoman Turkish,
žThe sweet as it is known today was invented by Bekir Effendi, who moved from Kastamonu to Constantinople (now Istanbul) and opened his confectionary shop in 1776.
žIt has been known in Anatolia since circa 15th century, but 17th century within the boundaries of Ottoman Empire.
žIn Europe, it started to be known as “Turkish Delight” in 19th century by means of an English traveler.
žIn the earlier production of lokum,
žHoney and pekmez were used as sweeteners instead of sugar
žFlour was used to hold water and give texture instead of starch with with rose water, lemon peel and bitter orange as the most common flavors (red, yellow and green)
žraw materials
žSugar
žStarch
žAcid
žWater
žColor and flavour additives
žSUGAR
žSugars are an important ingredient in many starch-based foods
žAffect properties such as sweetness, texture, colour, styling and etc.
žHold water and give texture.
žstarch
žFor thickening and gelling.
žCorn starch that have high amount of amylose (50-80%) creates white, rapid and strong gel.
žAcid-modified starch is the best one for lokum production
žAcid modified starch
žAcid-treated starch, also called thin boiling starch, is prepared by treating starch or starch granules with inorganic acids, e.g. hydrochloric acid breaking down the starch molecule and thus reducing the viscosity.
žWhy modIfIed starch used
softer and bright texture
require less water
reduce viscosity
increase stability
strong gelling characteristics
achieve cold water solubility
žACID
žDuring cooking to prevent crystallization by converting sucrose to invert sugar and supply sweetener taste
žCitric and tartaric acid are used
žCitric acid has high water solubility
žUsing tartaric acid makes lokum softer and in high stability of lokum
žCitric acid is produced and generally used in Turkey
WATER
žSoft water increases quality
žSoft water is treated water in which the include high amount of cation (positively charged ion) of sodium
žSome producers use rose water
Color AND FLAVOR additives
The flavoring agents;
– natural→ from natural materials by physical, enzymatic, microbiological ways
– nature identical → chemical equivalent of natural flavors.
– artificial flavoring agents→ from the synthesis that not found in nature by oneself.
flavoring agents ;
-mastic – grated coconut
-cocoa – crusty fruits
-chocolate – dried fruits
-sesame
-poppy seeds
žCOLORING
žUsed for prevent color loss during processing and storage
žStrengthen the weak color
-Tartrazine
-Sunset Yellow
-Ponceau 4R
-Green S
žEQUIPMENTS
žOpen vessel (boiler)
žMolds
žCutting
žPackaging
žLOKUM FORMULATION
žSUGAR 47%
žSTARCH 5.9%
žWATER 47%
žCITRIC ACID 0.03 %
žLOKUM PRODUCTION PROCESSES
žPreparing Sugar Syrup and Starch Milk
žMixing and Cooking
žAdding Flavors
žPouring and Shaping
žCooling
žCutting
žPackaging
žPreparing
sugar syrup and starch milk
žSugar Syrup Sugar + Water (33.7%)
žStarch Milk Corn Starch + Water( 66.3 %)
žMixing and cooking
žPrepared sugar syrup and starch milk are mixed continuously by an electric paddle.
žThen, citric acid is added into the vessel to prevent crystallization by converting sucrose to invert sugar.
žThe mixture in the vessel is started to cook by increasing the temperature of mixture to 125ºC for 2-2.5 h.
žAdding flavours
žVarious flavours are added to the mixture in the open vessel before cooling and mixed.
Almond
Pistachio
Cherry
Rose water
Hazelnut …etc.
žPOURING AND SHAPING
žPoured into molds after adding the required flavour addition.
žWooden and stainless steel molds are used to shape the lokum.
žCrusting and cracking of lokum could be prevented by pouring the lokum dough into a greasy metal pan.
žCOOLING
žCooked mixture in the molds are placed in the roofs and waited for 24 hours at room temperature for cooling and formation lokum texture.
žcutting
žCooled lokum is put on cutting tables with dusting in icing sugar or starch or coconut powder.
žCutting of lokum is done by hand or machine.
žWhether with hand or machine, lokums generally are cut into a cube shape with 2.5–3 cm edges.
žPackaging
žAfter cutting the shaped lokums are put into the different size and capacity of boxes.
žCrITICAL POINTS
žRAW MATERIALS PROPERTIES
žWater
—Soft
¤increase product quality
¤supply machine quality
¤increase shelf life of product
žStarch
—Amylose and amylopectin content
žSugar
—Free from ımpurity—
žAcid
—Solubility
—pH
žMIXING AND COOKING
žViscosity of lokum dough
žSoluble solid content
žTemperature
žTime
žUniform mixing
žPROPERTIES OF FINISHED PRODUCT
žAPPEARANCE→maintain its shape
→no foreign material
žTEXTURE→elasticity
→soft and slippery in mouth
žFLAVOUR→specific taste and odor
→no unwanted flavour
žCHEMICALS →Arsenic (As) max 1 mg/kg
→ Copper (Cu) max 10 mg/kg
→ Lead (Pb) max 2 mg/kg
ž MICROBIOLOGICAL → Total bacteria max 100000 cfu/ml
→ Fecal coliform None
→ Salmonella None
(From “TS 8444”)
Thanks to,
Prof. Dr. Sevim KAYA
For helps…

Bir cevap yazın