PURPOSE\r\nAntimicrobial\u00a0chemicals have killing effect on microorganisms. Anticeptics have killing effect\u00a0on living organisms, whereas disinfectants are used to sterilize instruments.In\u00a0this experiment we have examined the elimination effects of anticeptics\u00a0(zeption, formaldehyde and ethyl alcohol) on the growth of Staphylacoccus aureus\u00a0and E.coli bacterias.\r\nTHEORY\r\n'Antimicrobial\u00a0agents' are pesticides that control unwanted microbes on inanimate objects, in\u00a0water, and on selected foods under certain circumstances. These pesticides are\u00a0almost always chemicals, and they act by killing or inactivating microbes that\u00a0are pests. Antimicrobial pesticides include the disinfectants used in swimming\u00a0pools, drinking water supplies, and in hospitals to control microbes that can\u00a0cause disease.\r\n"Antimicrobial\u00a0agents" means:\r\n1.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Disinfectants intended to destroy or irreversibly\u00a0inactivate infectious or other undesirable bacteria, pathogenic fungi, or\u00a0viruses on surfaces or inanimate objects; \r\n2.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Sanitizers intended to reduce the number of living\u00a0bacteria or viable virus particles on inanimate surfaces, in water, or in air; \r\n3.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Bacteriostats intended to inhibit the growth of\u00a0bacteria in the presence of moisture; \r\n4.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Sterilizers intended to destroy viruses and all living\u00a0bacteria, fungi, and their spores, oninanimate surfaces; or \r\n5.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Fungicides and fungistats intended to inhibit the\u00a0growth of, or destroy fungi (including yeasts) pathogenic to man or other\u00a0animals on inanimate surfaces; \r\n6.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Commodity preservatives and protectants intended to\u00a0inhibit the growth of, or destroy bacteria in or on raw materials (such as\u00a0adhesives or plastics) used in manufacturing, or manufactured products (such as\u00a0fuel, textiles, lubricants, and paints); or \r\n7.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 General use algicides labeled for use in:\r\ni.\u00a0Swimming pools,\u00a0hot tubs, whirlpools, spas, ornamental ponds, fountains, fish tanks, and\u00a0waterbeds; \r\nii.\u00a0Water, wastewater\u00a0and sewerage treatment plants, but only where there is a controlled inlet and\u00a0outlet; and \r\niii.\u00a0Industrial,\u00a0commercial, and manufacturing processes.\r\nALCOHOLS - Ethyl or isopropyl at a concentration of 50-70% are\u00a0used for some surfaces where a rapid evaporation of the chemical and leaving no\u00a0residue may be important, such as on laboratory equipment, etc. Alcohols are\u00a0low in sporocidal activity and must remain wet on the surface for several\u00a0minutes to achieve any reasonable disinfection.\r\nALDEHYDES - Formaldehyde or more usually glutaraldehyde are\u00a0used as instrument and catheter disinfectants. The glutaraldehyde is the basic\u00a0chemical for various trademarks, such as Cidex, or Sonacide and newer ones such\u00a0as Sporocidin or Glutacide or Totacide, etc. These are used for disinfectants\u00a0or sterilization of instruments and catheters but not for environmental\u00a0surfaces. They may also be used for pipettes and clinical thermometers, etc.\r\nDETERGENTS\r\n- The term detergent refers to a\u00a0removal of soil or dirt and various types of detergents are available. The\u00a0anionic detergent such as soap and sodium lauryl sulfate and its close chemical\u00a0relative which are the ingredients in the various dish and laundry detergents\u00a0have very low level in antimicrobial activity and work by the removal of dirt\u00a0and microorganisms and rinsing them down the drain.\r\n\r\nGASEOUS\r\nAGENTS - Ethylene oxide as a gaseous agent may best be used as a\u00a0sterilant, but has been used in liquids for antimicrobial action. The use of\u00a0formaldehyde as a liquid at the 8% level in alcohol (for many hours) may have\u00a0sterilizing capability as well as 20% 0 aqueous formalin and formaldehyde with\u00a0low temperature steam (75 C).\r\nMATERIALS AND METHODS\r\n\u00b7E.coli and\u00a0S.aureus cultures\r\n\u00b7Nutrient agar\r\n\u00b7Petries\r\n\u00b70,5%\u00a0 Zeption (1)\r\n\u00b75% formaldehyde\r\n(2)\r\n\u00b770% ethyl alcohol\r\n(3)\r\nPROCEDURE\r\n\u00b7Petri was divided\u00a0into 3 parts and numbers were given to each part as 1 ,2 and 3.\r\n\u00b70,2 ml of E.coli\u00a0was inoculated on Nutrient agar by spread plate technique\r\n\u00b7E.coli was\u00a0spreaded on plate\r\n\u00b7Then sterile\u00a0small spherical shaped filter paper was immersed 0,5 % zeption solution and the\u00a0put on the number 1 on the plate \r\n\u00b7Another filter\u00a0paper was immersed in 5% formaldehyde and put on number 2 on plate\r\n\u00b7The last fitler\u00a0paper was immersed into 70% ethyl alcohol and then put on number 3 on plate\r\n\u00b7The plate was\u00a0incubated at 37\u00b0C for 24 hours\r\n\u00b7The effectiveness\u00a0of anticeptics was compared after incubation\r\nIndication\u00a0of effectiveness of anticeptics\r\nNo\u00a0growth = +++\r\nPoor\u00a0growth = ++\r\nExcellent\u00a0growth = 0 (none)\r\nRESULTS\r\n1\u00a0= ++\r\n2= +++\r\n3=+\r\nDISCUSSION\r\nIn\u00a0this experiment we have examined the effectiveness of anticeptics.We have seen\u00a0that the effectiveness of anticeptics are 2>1>3.It means that the\u00a0effectiveness of formaldehyde on the growth of E.coli is greater than that of\u00a0zeption and ethly alcohol.These anticeptics are low level anticeptics so they\u00a0dont have a strong killing effect on microorganisms.In food\u00a0industry,anticeptics and disinfectants can be used to sterilize the equipments\u00a0and for the elimination of microorganisms.There are some physical disinfection\u00a0methods used in industries such as\u00a0\r\nPASTEURIZATION\r\nPasteurization for wine and dairies for milk (62+ C for 30 minutes) has been\u00a0adapted for disinfecting laboratory and health care facilities heat labile\u00a0instruments that might be damaged by some temperatures. This consists,\u00a0essentially, of a washing process to remove 99+% of the organic matter and\u00a0organisms followed by immersing into water at 60 C-65 C for at least 30 minutes.\r\nRADIATION\r\nUltra-violet lights as it is used in laboratories and health care facilities\u00a0may reduce the number of organisms to low level in the air and on surfaces but\u00a0it is not a sterilizing process. It must be well engineered and installed very\u00a0carefully to prevent burning of skin and eyes.\r\nFILTRATION\r\nThe filtration in the laboratory of fluids that are heat labile such as\u00a0antibiotics, vitamins and other growth factors may be carried out with very\u00a0fine pore membrane filters below 0.45 microns in diameter. These fluids should\u00a0be checked for sterility by subculture before use.The HEPA filtration reduces\u00a0the number of organisms but does not achieve real sterilization.