Frozen French Fries and Potato Chips Factory

BEYNELMILEL FOOD CORPORATION FROZEN FRENCH FRIES ANDPOTATO CHIPS FACTORY DESIGN PROJECT
PRESENTATION ORDER
INTRODUCTION
RECEPTION – DESTONING & WASHING – PEELING
POTATO CHIPS LINE
FRENCH FRIES LINE

SLICING & SLICE WASHING – BLANCHING – FRYING

PRECOOLING – FREEZING – COLD STORAGE
CLEANING AND WASTE TREATMENT
INTRODUCTION
GENERAL INFORMATION
NAME OF COMPANY : Beynelmilel Food Industrial Corporation
DATE OF ESTABLISH : 01.01.2008
ADDRESS : BOLU Organization Zone / BOLU
PHONE NUMBER : +90 374 215 98 74
WEB : www.beynelmilel.com
TYPE OF PROCESS : Continuous
SERVICE LIFE : 15 years
ENERGY SUPPLY : Electricity and fuel oil (no:4)
CAPACITY : 7200 tons french fries/year
14400 tons potato chips/year
OPERATING TIME : 26 days/month
300 days/year
•MISSION AND VISIONOUR PRODUCTS
Our products are mainly potato chips and frozen french fries. Also, we have starch and peel as by-products.
Starch is sold to related industries. Potato peel is sold as animal feed.
QUALITY POLICY
MARKETING AND TRANSPORTATION
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
PLANT LAYOUT
PROCESS LAYOUT
MACHINE LOCATION (Side View)
GENERAL MASS BALANCES
TOTAL MASS BALANCE FOR FRENCH FRIES
GENERAL MASS BALANCES
TOTAL MASS BALANCE FOR POTATO CHIPS
WASTE TREATMENTS
Peel is sold as animal feed.
Starch solution from slicing, slice washing and blanching is fed to rotary vacuum drum filter.
Starch obtained as cake and is sold to related industries.
Wastewater from washing is treated in water treatment unit and reused after specific controls.
The waste oil is sold to biodiesel producers.
REVISIONS
We have some revisions due to the advises we are given at Food Engineering Design (1st Semester) course.
The blanching unit is removed from potato chips line
The water tank design is rearranged.
The used salt amount is changed
The waste oil is sold to biodiesel producers
The membrane filtration is changed with rotary vacuum drum filter.
REVISIONS ON COST ESTIMATION
The revisions on purchased equipments (addition and removal of equipments) were analyzed if there an identical change exists or not.
REVISIONS ON COST ESTIMATION
As a result of these changes the Cumulative Cash Position and Break-Even Point Calculations were repeated.
As one can observe from the results above it was concluded that the Cumulative Cash Position and Break-Even Point were not effected very much from these changes.
PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION
Potato Chips Line
PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION
French Fries Line
PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION
The graphical representation of potato chips production
PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION
The graphical representation of french fries production
RECEPTION
RECEIVING
DESTONING AND WASHING
Tee Connection Loss: Contraction loss from 3” diameter to 1.5” diameter:
V : 0.48 m/s h: 0.55*(1-A2/A1)*(V2/2*α*g)
h : (K*V2)/(2*g) K : 1 α: 1.0
h : 0.12 j/kg h: 0.53 j/kg

900 elbow loss: Other straight pipes;
Q = V * A 2 m length, 3” diameter: 2.51 j/kg
(0.00136 m3/ s) = V * (π * (0.039)2 /4) 3 m length, 1.5” diameter: 3.78 j/kg
h : (K*V2)/(2*g) K : 0.75
h : 0.53 j/kg
Expansion loss from 1.5” diameter pipe to equipment:
h: (1-A1/A2)2*(V2/2*α*g)
h: 0.65 j/kg
WATER TANK THICKNESS OF WATER TANK:

Dtank: 10 m rtank: 5 m
h tank: 6 m
V tank: 471 m3 (cylindrical)

Vwater= 375 m3 (for 2 days need)
: 7808 kg/hr * 48 hr
: 375000 kg

Vwater: Π*r2*h
: Π*(5m) 2* h water
h water: 5.09 m

P water: ρ * g * h
: 0.493 atm
Theoritical thickness: So
So : D*P / [2*(σs/n)*V*100] : 10000 mm* 0.439 atm /
[200*(2.5/2)*0.9] : 21,917 mm

S : So+C
: 21,917 +1.5
: 23,417 mm

WATER TANK
Volume of steel: V inside+tank thickness – V inside
: 4.422 m3
Mass of steel: V* ρ
: 4.422 m3*8000kg/ m3
: 35377.671 kg
Total mass in tank: msteel+mwater
: 35377.671 + 375000
: 410377.671 kg

Number of legs: 4 (because of radius higher than 1.5 m)

Force on each leg: 410377.671 kg/4 leg
: 102600 kg
WATER TANK
PEELING
SLICING
SLICE WASHING
DEWATERING
Water on 1325 kg sliced wet potato is removed on porous conveyor belt to the frier.
5 kg water is removed from this amount of potato.
Power required for this conveyor is 0.04498 kW.
FRYING
OIL TANK
THICKNESS OF OIL TANK:

Dtank: 4.37 m rtank: 2.185 m
h tank: 4 m
V tank: 60 m3 (cylindrical)

Voil: 48 m3 (for 2 days need)
: 825 kg/hr * 48 hr
: 42000 kg

Voil: Π*r2*h
: Π*(2.185m) 2* h oil
h oil: 3.20 m

P oil: ρ * g * h
: 0.272 atm

Theoritical thickness: So

So : D*P / [2*(σs/n)*V*100] : 4370 mm* 0.272 atm / [200*(2.5/2)*0.9] : 5.28 mm

S: So+C
: 5.28+1.5
: 6.78 mm

Volume of steel: 13.72*4 m*0.00678mm
: 0.372 m3

OIL TANK
Mass of steel: V* ρ
: 0.372 m3*8000kg
: 2978 kg

Total mass in tank : msteel+moil
: 2978+42000
: 44978 kg
Number of legs: 4 (because of radius higher than 1.5 m)
Force on each leg: 45000 kg/ 4 leg
: 11250 kg/leg
PIPING OF OIL TO FRYING
For common oil pipe of diameter 3 in;
1. straight pipe loss (14 m)

PIPING OF OIL TO FRYING HEAT LOSS IN OIL TANK:

r oil: 2.185+0.0678

Q: ho*A*∆T
: (9.37 W/m2.K)*[( Π*r2)+(2* Π*r*L)]*(40oC-10.4 K)
: (9.37)* [(Π*2.1852)+(2* Π*2.185*3.20)]*(29.6)
: 16390 W → without insulation

ØInsulation material: polyurethane

∆xpolyuretan: 200mm: 0.2 m kpolyurethane : 0.12 W/m.K
∆xsteel: 0.0678 m k steel: 46 W/m.K

A1: 2* Π*r1*L
: 2* Π*2.185*3.20
: 43.93 m2

A2: 2* Π*(2.185+0.2)*3.20
: 47.95 m2

A3: 2* Π*(2.185+0.0678+0.2)*3.20
: 49.31 m2
Alm1: (A2- A1) / ln(A2/ A1)
: 45.91 m2
Alm2: (A3- A2) / ln(A3/ A2)
: 48.62 m2

R1: (r2-r1) / (ksteel* Alm1)
: 2.68*10-6

R2: (r3- r2) / (kpolyuretan* Alm2)
: 0.034

Q: ∆T / ∑R
: (40-10.4) / [(2.68*10-6)+0.034] : 863.42 W
MIXING OF OIL TANK :

µ at 400C: 35.41 Pa.s
Da:1.066 m
N: 2.62 rev/s
ρ at 400C: 875.1 kg/ m3
Nre: Da2*N*ρ/ µ
: 1.0662*2.62*875.1/35.41 Pa.s
: 73.57
From table → Np: 4 (curve 1)

P: Np*ρ*N3* Da5
: 4*875.1*2.623*1.0662
: 71537.6 W
: 71.537 kW
SALTING
PACKAGING
2000 kg potato chıps is packaged hourly.
Power required for the conveyor belt after packaging
P = 0.587 kW
SLICING AND SLICE WASHING
SLICING AND WASHING
Power required for conveyor belt to carry peeled potatoes to slicing unit of french fries line is;
P= 1,00 kW
Friction losses to fed water to slicing and slice washing of french fries line are due to,
ØStraight pipe
ØElbow
ØTee connection
ØContraction
ØExpansion
Ø
TOTAL LOSS : 0.31 J / kg
SLICING AND SLICE WASHING BLANCHING
Blanched slices are carried to frying on dewatering conveyor which is level
On this conveyor, 5kg of water is removed from potato slices.
Power required for this conveyor :
P=0.023 kW
Friction losses to fed water to blanching are due to ;
Straight pipe
Elbows
Expansion
TOTAL LOSS: 0.05 J/KG
FRYING
840 kg potato is fed to frier hourly.
The final product has 16% oil.
Fried potatoes are carried to pre cooling on ascending conveyor with a height 1500 mm and an angle 20 0.
Power required for this conveyor;
P= 0,917 kW
Friction losses to fed oil to frier of french fries line are due to;
straight pipe
elbow
valve
TOTAL LOSS : 5,1 J / kg
Total friction loss in oil pipe: 212 j/kg
Total power required to pump: 494 W
PRECOOLING
1000 kg fried potato is carried to precooling on a level conveyor with a lenght of 2500 mm.

Power required for this conveyor is 0.212 W.
PRECOOLING
The potato slices at 20C are carried to freezing on ascending conveyor with a height of 1300 mm and an angle of 200.

Power required to carry the potatoes is 1.2 kW totally.

FREEZING
PACKAGING
The packaged frozen potatoes are carried on a level conveyor with a lenght of 2500 mm.
Power required for this conveyor is 0.90 kW.
The total power required for all conveyors is 8.77 kW.
COLD STORAGE
kytong : 0.13 W/m.K
kpolyuretan : 0.12 W/m.K
Δxytong : 0.15 m
Δxpolyuretan : 0.20 m
A : (10m * 5m) : 50m2

Toutside : 10.4oC (anually average)
Tinside : -18oC

hinside : 9.37 W/m2.K
houtside : 22.7 W/ m2.K

U : 1/ [(1/ho) + ( 1/hi) + (Δxy/ky) + (Δxp/kp)] U : 0.3365 W/m2.K
East and west walls:

Toutside : 10.4 + 6 : 16.4oC

Q : (0.3365 W/m2.K) * (50) * (16.4+18)

: 578.78 W

COLD STORAGE
Roof:

Toutside : 10.4+15 :25.4oC

Q: 730.205 W
Qair change load: m * (houtside – hinside)
houtside: 60.07 kj/kg
hinside: 27.58 kj/kg
Qair change load: 390 W
COLD STORAGE
Q: m * Cp * ∆T

m: (1000 kg/hr) * (1 hr/3600 s)

: 0.27 kg/s

Cp: specific heat of frozen french fries: 3.52 kj/kg

T1: -17 oC T2: -18 oC

Q: 950 W
a) heat given off by light:
number of fluoresan lamp: 4
watt of each lamp: 36 watt
(36 watt * 24 hr)/24hr * 4: 144 W

b) heat given off by electrical motor:
electrical motor: 3415 Btu/hr.kW
power of motor: 0.25 kW
(3415 Btu/hr.kW) * (1.005506kj/1Btu) * (1hr/3600s) * 0.25kW: 250 W

c) heat gain from people:
number of people: 4 forklift operator
Q: (270-6T) * # of people
: [270+(6*18)] * 4
: 1512 W TOTAL: 1906 W
COLD STORAGE
WASTE TREATMENT
POTATO PROCESSING AND SOURCES OF WASTES
High-quality raw potatoes are important to potato processing
Potato quality affects the final product and the amount of waste produced
MAJOR PROCESSING STEPS PRODUCING WASTE
In our plant major processing steps producing waste are:
Washing
Peeling
Slicing,slice washing and blanching
Frying
WASHING
Raw potatoes washed throughly to remove sand and dirt prior to processing
2560 kg of water is consumed per 1600 kg of potatoes in this process
PEELING
•Peeling of potatoes contributes the major portion of the organic load in potato processing waste
•Steam peeling method is used in our plant
•Peeling losses, as high as 25–30% is acceptable to produce a satisfactory
product
• Potato peels provide a good source of dietary fiber and used as an excellent carbohydrate source in cattle feed and it is sold to animal feed manufacturers
SLICING,SLICE WASHING AND BLANCHING
Starchy solution obtained in these units is fed to rotary vacuum drum filter
In the starch recovery unit 3366 kg of starch solution having 6.65% starch is fed to drum filter
The filtrate is 3220 kg having 90 kg starch and the seperated cake has 135 kg of starch
FRYING
Palm oil is used for frying in our process
Waste palm oil is sold to biodiesel manufacturers
POTATO WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Large volumes of wastewater and organic wastes are generated in potato processing as a result of the water used in washing, peeling, and additional processing operations
CHARACTERISTICS OF POTATO PROCESSING WASTEWATER

Because potato processing wastewater contains high concentrations of BOD components and total suspended solids (TSS) the potato processing presents potentially serious water pollution problems
Foreign components that may accompany the potato include dirt,caustic, fat, cleaning and preserving chemicals
SOURCES OF WASTEWATER
Process wastewater results from potato processing operations including peeling, slicing, blanching.
The main sources of wastewaters consist of silt water and process wastewater.
The silt waste resulted from raw potato washing operations. It contains a large amount of soil removed from the raw potatoes.
Water volume is reduced by reusing process water to minimize waste disposal problems
WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS
The most commonly used treatment methods depend on screening, primary treatment,and settling of silt water in ponds
Samely,in our plant used treatment method depends on these steps
Screen is the first device encountered by wastewater entering the treatment plant.
Screening is used to remove large pieces of waste so that the water can be reused within the processing plant.
•Flotation is another method used for the removal of suspended solids and oil and grease from wastewater
•Floating materials rise to the surface of the clarifier, where they are collected by a surface skimming system and removed from the tank for further processing
• After screening, wastewater still carries light organic suspended solids, which is removed from the wastewater by gravity in sedimentation tanks called clarifiers.
Sedimentation is employed for the removal of suspended solids from wastewater.
The mass of settled solids is
called raw sludge is removed
from the clarifier by
mechanical scrapers
In the final processing stages, water is chlorinated to prevent bacterial contamination of the product that is why the recovered water gained here is fed to washing step again.
CLEANING SYSTEM
Cleaning procedure is applied in all workspaces between production batches by automatically recirculating detergent and rinse solutions.
In our cleaning programme following steps are included:
•Rinsing with water at 85ºC for 8 minutes
•Rinsing with NaOH solution (0.5-1.0%) at 73ºC for 20 minutes
•Rinsing with water at 85ºC for 8 minutes
•Rinsing with nitric acid(HNO3) (0.5-1.0%) at 70ºC for 15 minutes
•Gradual cooling with cold water for 7 minutes
•The programme is accomplished once a time in a month

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