Cheese is defined as the fresh or matured product obtained by draining the whey after coagulating casein, the major protein in milk. The casein is coagulated by acid from selected m/o’s and / or by milk-clotting enzymes added to the milk. The resulting curd is cubed, cut, heated,drained and salted.Fresh and uncured cheese, such as cottage and cream, can be eaten immediately.
Ripening or uncuring of the knitted or streched curd includes exposure to a temperature humıdıty controlled environment for a specified length of time. Changes during curing are bought about by specially selected enzymes, bacteria, mold, yeast or combinations of these added curing agents in or on the cheese. During ripening nutrients such as protein fat and carbohydrate (lactose) are changed to simpler compounds that produce the chacteristic flavour and affect the final texture of the cheese.
We made the cheese using two different methods. One of both is using lactic acid, other is using rennin. In rennin method, we applıed pasteurization method except boilng.Also after added rennin we incubated the milk. However we dıdn’t apply incubation process to the milk added lactic acid. In lactic acid method we observed coagulum, while adding lactic acid to the milk. No process dıd ın thıs method for obtain cheese beside this.
There was not big difference in yield between these two method. But in acidity, there are some contradiction. In lactic acid method, lactic acid level in whey was bigger than curd’s. But in rennin method, L.A level of whey was smaller than curd’s. On the other hand, the pH level in lactic acid method was smaller than rennin’s. Also pH of whey was smaller than curd in these both method. All cheese dıshes should be cooked at a low temperature for a short time.
Excessive heat and overcooking cause fat seperation, stringing, and the tougheningof the cheese. Hard cheese such as cheddar, swiss and parmesan may be kept for several weeks. Soft cheese such as cream, cottage, neufchatel, fresh rıcotta, brie and camembert are hıghly perıshable and should be used within days after purchase.