Any substance that can donate an H+ ion to a base. Bronsted acids are H+-ion or proton donors.
An electron-pair acceptor. A substance that acts in the same way as the H+ ion to accept a pair of electrons.
the strength of an acid in a solution, (total H+)
Any substance that can accept an H+ ion from an acid. Bronsted bases are H+-ion or proton acceptors.
An electron-pair donor. A substance that acts in the same way as the OH-ion to donate a pair of electrons.
A mixture of a weak acid (HA) and its conjugate base (A-) or a weak base (B) and its conjugate acid (BH+). Buffers resist a change in the pH of a solution when small amounts of acid or base are added.
is the process by which astated measure a mass or a volume is checked for accuracy.
once a data such as concentration vs. density of solution is obtained,it is possible to plot a curve
A compound that contains the -CO2H functional group
a substance that increases the rate of reaction without being consumed in the overall reaction.
the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in terms of the chemical formulas.
the state reached by a reaction mixture when the rate of forward reaction and that of the reverse reaction have become equal
The study of the rates of chemical reactions.
A measure of the ratio of the amount of solute in a solution to the amount of either solvent or solution. Frequently expressed in units of moles of solute per liter of solution.
Conjugate acid-base pair:
Two substances related by the gain or loss of a proton. Every Brnsted acid has a conjugate Brnsted base. An acid (such as HCl) and its conjugate base (the Cl- ion), or a base (the OH- ion) and its conjugate acid (H2O) represent a conjugate acid-base pair.
contains a large amount of solute.
the mass per unit volume
contains a small amount of solute.
a chemical reaction in which heat is absorbed
The point at which the indicator of an acid-base titration changes color.
is the ratio of the forward and reverse reaction rate constants.
a chemical reaction in which heat is evolved
A method of separating mixtures based on differences in the solubility of their components in polar versus nonpolar solvents.
The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure
involve substances different phases (gas and liquid)
involve substances same phases (liquid and liquid,gas and gas)
the H30′ ion; also called the hydrogen ion and written H'(aq)
A compound, such as phenolphthalein, that changes color at the endpoint of a titration.
Le Chatelier’s principle
a principle stating that when a system in equilibrium is disturbed by a change of temperature, pressure, or concentration variable, the system shifts in equilibrium composition in a way that tends to counteract this change of variable
The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure.
The curved surface of a liquid in a narrow-diameter glass tube.
the number moles of solute per one kilogram of solvent
the number moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution
the moles of a component substance divided by the total moles of solution
Reaction quotient (Qc or Qp):
The quotient obtained when the concentrations (or partial pressures) of the products of a reaction are multiplied and the result is divided by the product of the concentrations (or partial pressures) of the reactants. The reaction quotient can have any value between zero and infinity. When the reaction is at equilibrium, the reaction quotient is equal to the equilibrium constant for the reaction.