FE 106 Word List

Acid Bronsted

Any substance that can donate an H+ ion to a base. Bronsted acids are H+-ion or proton donors.

Acid Lewis

An electron-pair acceptor. A substance that acts in the same way as the H+ ion to accept a pair of electrons.

Acidity

the strength of an acid in a solution, (total H+)

Base Bronsted

Any substance that can accept an H+ ion from an acid. Bronsted bases are H+-ion or proton acceptors.

Base Lewis

An electron-pair donor. A substance that acts in the same way as the OH-ion to donate a pair of electrons.

Buffer:

A mixture of a weak acid (HA) and its conjugate base (A-) or a weak base (B) and its conjugate acid (BH+). Buffers resist a change in the pH of a solution when small amounts of acid or base are added.

Calibration

is the process by which astated measure a mass or a volume is checked for accuracy.

Calibration curve

once a data such as concentration vs. density of solution is obtained,it is possible to plot a curve

Carboxylic acid:

A compound that contains the -CO2H functional group

Catalyst

a substance that increases the rate of reaction without being consumed in the overall reaction.

Chemical equation

the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in terms of the chemical formulas.

Chemical equilibrium

the state reached by a reaction mixture when the rate of forward reaction and that of the reverse reaction have become equal

Chemical kinetics:

The study of the rates of chemical reactions.

Concentration:

A measure of the ratio of the amount of solute in a solution to the amount of either solvent or solution. Frequently expressed in units of moles of solute per liter of solution.

Conjugate acid-base pair:

Two substances related by the gain or loss of a proton. Every Brnsted acid has a conjugate Brnsted base. An acid (such as HCl) and its conjugate base (the Cl- ion), or a base (the OH- ion) and its conjugate acid (H2O) represent a conjugate acid-base pair.

Consantre solution

contains a large amount of solute.

Density

the mass per unit volume

Dilute solution

contains a small amount of solute.

Endothermic process

a chemical reaction in which heat is absorbed

Endpoint:

The point at which the indicator of an acid-base titration changes color.

Equilibrium constant

is the ratio of the forward and reverse reaction rate constants.

Exothermic process

a chemical reaction in which heat is evolved

Extraction:

A method of separating mixtures based on differences in the solubility of their components in polar versus nonpolar solvents.

Freezing point:

The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure

Heterogeneous Equilibria

involve substances different phases (gas and liquid)

Homogeneous Equilibria

involve substances same phases (liquid and liquid,gas and gas)

Hydronium ion

the H30′ ion; also called the hydrogen ion and written H'(aq)

Indicator

A compound, such as phenolphthalein, that changes color at the endpoint of a titration.

Le Chatelier’s principle

a principle stating that when a system in equilibrium is disturbed by a change of temperature, pressure, or concentration variable, the system shifts in equilibrium composition in a way that tends to counteract this change of variable

Melting point:

The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure.

Meniscus:

The curved surface of a liquid in a narrow-diameter glass tube.

Molality

the number moles of solute per one kilogram of solvent

Molarity (M)

the number moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution

Mole fraction

the moles of a component substance divided by the total moles of solution

Reaction quotient (Qc or Qp):

The quotient obtained when the concentrations (or partial pressures) of the products of a reaction are multiplied and the result is divided by the product of the concentrations (or partial pressures) of the reactants. The reaction quotient can have any value between zero and infinity. When the reaction is at equilibrium, the reaction quotient is equal to the equilibrium constant for the reaction.

Nonpolar:

Do not carry a dipole moment.There are no electronegativity differences in both of substances.

pH:

A measure of acidity. The negative of the logarithm of the H3O+ ion concentra-tion: pH = – log [H3O+]

pOH:

The negative of the logarithm of the OH- ion concentration: pOH = – log [OH-]

Polar:

Have a dipole moment because they consist of molecules that have negative and positive poles.

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Precipitate

a solid formed by a reaction in solution

Product

a substance that results from a chemical reaction

Proton acceptor:

An ion or molecule that can gain an H+ ion, or proton. A Brnsted base.

Proton donor:

An ion or molecule that can lose an H+ ion, or proton. A Brnsted acid.

Rate constant:

The proportionality constant in the equation that describes the relation-ship between the rate of a step in a chemical reaction and the product of the concentrations of the reactants consumed in that step.

Rate of reaction:

The change in the concentration of a compound divided by the amount of time necessary for this change to occur: rate = d(X)/dt.

Reactant

a starting substance in a chemical reaction

Saturated solution:

A solution that contains as much solute as possible.

Standart Solution

Titration involves the reaction of a standardized solution (previously analized) with another solution or solid.

Solubility:

The ratio of the maximum amount of solute to the volume of solvent in which this solute can dissolve. Often expressed in units of grams of solute per 100g of water, or in moles of solid per liter of solution.

Solute

 the component smaller amount in the solution

Solution

a mixture that is uniform in its properties throughout given samples

Solvent

the component in greater amount in the solution

Strong acid:

Used to describe acids that dissociate more or less completely in water.

Supersaturated solution

a solution that contains more dissolved substance than does a saturated solution; the solution is not in equilibrium with the pure substance

Titration:

A technique used to determine the concentration of a solute in a solution.

Unsaturated solution

a solution that is not in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance and in which more of the substance can dissolve

van der Waals forces:

The weak forces of attraction between atoms or molecules that explain why gases condense to form liquids and solids when cooled.

Weak acid:

An acid that dissociates only slightly in water. An acid for which the acid-dissociation equilibrium constant is significantly smaller than one.

Solubility affect factors:

1.Temperature

İf Temp increases, Solubility increases,

2.Amount of Solvent

İf solvent increases, Solubility increases,

Factors that affect to Reaction Rate

1.Nature

Nature of rectant or product. İf Conc increases, Rate increases

2-Concentration reactant

if concentration increases,react rate increases in homogeneous mixture.  Heterogeneous mixture.

3-Temperature

İf temp increases, reaction rate increases

4-Catalist

Amount of catalist doesn’t change during the reaction.

Factors that affect to Chemical Equilibrium

1.Temperature

in exothermic Temp incresase, Equilibrium shift to left. In endothermic eq. shift to right

2.Concentration    3.Pressure

Concentration increase , eq. shift towards more less                                                                                                          Pressure increase, eq. shift to right. Pressure decrease, eq. shift to lfet.

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