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Enzymes Glossary
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AdoMet S-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor used by DNA methylases.
Affector Sequence Double-stranded DNA containing the recognition site of a Type IIe restriction enzyme that activates cleavage of slow and resistant sites by binding to a distal, noncatalytic site on the enzyme.
Ambiguity of Recognition When more than one nucleotide is possible at a particular position in the recognition site of a restriction enzyme (degeneracy).
Bipartite Recognition Sequence An interrupted, nonpalindromic recognition sequence.
Blue/White Cloning Assay A restriction enzyme quality control assay developed at Promega to ensure the lowest possible incidence of false positives in cloning experiments. This assay mimics a cloning experiment and is able to detect the loss of a single nucleotide from the end of a linearized plasmid.
BSA (acetylated) Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) is used as a carrier and stabilizing protein in restriction enzyme digests. Promega’s BSA has been acetylated to ensure that it contains no interfering activities.
Cognate Sequence/Site The specific double-stranded DNA sequence recognized by a restriction enzyme (same as recognition sequence).
Concatamers Two or more of the same linear DNA molecule covalently linked end-to-end.
Cut-Ligate-Recut Assay A restriction enzyme quality control assay for exonuclease and phosphatase contamination. DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme, ligated with T4 DNA Ligase and recut with the enzyme to demonstrate the integrity of the restriction fragment ends.
damMethylation Methylation at the N6 position of adenine in the sequence GATC by dam methylase, an enzyme found in most laboratory strains of E. colidam methylation may prevent cleavage by some restriction enzymes.
dcmMethylation Methylation at the C5 position of the internal cytosine in the sequence CCAGG or CCTGG by dcmmethylase, an enzyme found in most laboratory strains of E. colidcm methylation may prevent cleavage by some restriction enzymes.
Degeneracy When more than one nucleotide is possible at a particular position in the recognition site of a restriction enzyme (ambiguity of recognition).
Dinucleotide (or Trinucleotide) Bias An increased or decreased probability of encountering a particular dinucleotide (or trinucleotide) sequence in a genome, used to predict the expected cut frequency of a restriction enzyme.
Endonuclease An enzyme that cleaves single- or double-stranded DNA at interior positions. Endonuclease activity may be specific (e.g., restriction enzymes) or nonspecific (e.g., nickases).
Exonuclease An enzyme that removes individual nucleotides from the end of single- or double-stranded DNA, usually specific for a 3´ or 5´ end.
Fidelity of Recognition The stringency with which a restriction enzyme discriminates between its recognition site and closely related sites. Fidelity of recognition is significantly reduced under suboptimal conditions, leading to star activity.
Genome Qualified Promega enzymes whose performance in digesting bacterial genomes has been demonstrated.
Hemi-methylated DNA DNA that has been methylated on only one strand of a restriction enzyme recognition site.
Homing Endonucleases Endonucleases encoded by genes with mobile, self-splicing introns or inteins (protein introns). Also known as intron or intein encoded endonucleases.
Interrupted Palindrome A restriction enzyme recognition sequence containing a dyad axis of symmetry separated by a specific number of totally degenerate nucleotides (denoted by the letter N).
Intron or Intein Encoded Endonucleases Endonucleases encoded by genes with mobile, self-splicing introns or inteins (protein introns). Also known as homing endonucleases.
Isoschizomers Restriction enzymes that have the same recognition sequence but may or may not share the same cut site.
Linear Diffusion The process by which restriction enzymes diffuse along a DNA molecule to find their recognition site.
Neoschizomers A subset of isoschizomers that share the same recognition sequence, but cleave the DNA at a different site within that sequence.
Nickase An enzyme that makes a single-stranded break in double-stranded DNA, usually in a nonspecific manner.
Non-palindromic A restriction enzyme recognition sequence without a dyad axis of symmetry. Non-palindromic sequences are typical of Type IIs enzymes.
Overdigest Assay A restriction enzyme quality control assay for exonucleases, other endonucleases and star activity. In this assay, increasing amounts of enzyme are added to a series of tubes containing substrate DNA. After a 16-hour incubation under appropriate conditions, the maximum number of units giving a clear, sharp, normal banding pattern is determined by agarose gel electrophoresis.
Palindromic A restriction enzyme recognition sequence containing a dyad axis of symmetry using only A, C, G and T, i.e., the sequence reads the same in the 5´→ 3´ direction on each strand.
Partially Palindromic A restriction enzyme recognition sequence containing a dyad axis of symmetry with degenerate positions. For example, the recognition site of Sty I is given as CCWWGG; therefore, Sty I cleavage occurs at the sequences CCAAGG, CCATGG, CCTAGG and CCTTGG.
Phosphatase An enzyme that removes a phosphate from a nucleic acid or protein. Phosphatases are potential contaminants of restriction enzyme reactions and can reduce subsequent ligation efficiency.
Modification (R/M) System
A system composed of a restriction endonuclease and a methylase that share the same recognition sequence. The methylase modifies the host DNA, protecting it from the action of the restriction endonuclease, which cleaves unmodified (foreign) DNA. The methylase and endonuclease genes are usually adjacent to each other on the host DNA. Occasionally a third open reading frame is also present, believed to code for a “C”, or control, protein for endonuclease expression.
Recognition Site Density When determining the number of units of restriction enzyme needed for a digest, consideration must be given to the number of recognition sites in 1µg of the sample DNA compared with the number of recognition sites in 1µg of the unit definition DNA. This is especially important when digesting PCR fragments and oligonucleotides and is occasionally a factor affecting plasmid digests.
Resistant Sites A restriction enzyme recognition sequence that is difficult to cleave using the appropriate reaction conditions using a small excess of enzyme. No additional cleavage is realized by increasing the amount of enzyme used.
Restriction Map A map of a DNA sequence showing the restriction sites of one or more restriction enzymes.
Scissile Phosphate The phosphate at which the DNA backbone is cleaved by a restriction endonuclease. Restriction enzymes hydrolyze the diester bond to yield 5´-phosphate and 3´-hydroxide DNA fragments.
Slow Sites A restriction enzyme recognition sequence that is partially cleaved under appropriate reaction conditions using a small excess of enzyme. Additional cleavage is realized by increasing the amount of enzyme used.
Star Activity Undesired restriction enzyme cleavage at sites resembling the recognition sequence. This activity is accelerated under suboptimal reaction conditions, e.g., improper ionic strength, wrong divalent metal cofactor or the presence of volume excluders.
Substrate-Assisted Catalysis Reaction mechanism of restriction enzymes where the 3´-phosphate adjacent to the scissile phosphate plays a critical, but as yet not completely understood, role in catalysis.
Turbo™ Promega Type IIe restriction enzymes provided with a Reaction Buffer containing a noncleavable affector sequence that facilitates efficient digestion of slow and resistant sites.
Type I Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes consisting of a multimeric complex that contains restriction, methylation and specificity subunits. Recognition sites are bipartite and interrupted. Cleavage is distant and variable from the recognition site. AdoMet, ATP (hydrolyzed) and Mg2+ are required for cleavage. Not commercially available.
Type II Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes consisting of a homodimer. Recognition sites are palindromic, partially palindromic or interrupted palindromes. Cleavage is defined and within the recognition sequence. Only Mg2+ is required as a cofactor. These are the most common commercially available restriction enzymes.
Type IIb Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes consisting of a heterotrimer. Recognition sites are bipartite and interrupted. Both strands on both sides of the recognition site are cleaved, excising the recognition site. AdoMet and Mg2+ are required. Bcg I is the only commercially available enzyme of this type.
Type IIe Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes that would be classified as Type II or Type IIs but demonstrate slow or resistant sites. Efficient cleavage at these sites can be achieved by the binding of another (affector) recognition sequence to a distal, noncatalytic site on the enzyme.
Type IIs Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes that primarily exist in monomeric form. Recognition sites are nonpalindromic, nearly always contiguous and without ambiguities. At least one strand is cleaved outside the recognition sequence. Only Mg2+ is required as a cofactor. Many are commercially available.
Type III Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes that consist of restriction- and methylation-specificity subunits. Recognition sites are non-palindromic. Cleavage is approximately 25 bases from the recognition site. AdoMet, ATP (non-hydrolyzed) and Mg2+ are required. Not commercially available.
Unit Definition One unit is the amount of restriction enzyme necessary to completely digest 1µg of a specific DNA substrate, usually lambda, in one hour, in a 50µl reaction volume and at a specified temperature. Digestion is determined by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel electrophoresis.
Volume Excluders For restriction enzymes, buffer components such as glycerol and polyethylene glycol that reduce the amount of water at the enzyme-DNA interface. Volume excluders often cause increased star activity.

Alfalfa – A flowering plant that is very nutrient rich (vitamins, minerals esp. calcium and chlorophyll). As well as providing many nutrients it can also assist in wound healing, support balanced blood cholesterol, act as a digestive tonic, support healthy menstruation (esp. with blood loss as has high vitamin K), help stop bleeding of wounds when applied locally, as a blood sugar balancer and support appetite management.

Alpha-Galactosidase – An enzyme that separates the alpha-galactosyl portion from glycolipids and glycoproteins and it can break down melibiose (to galactose and glucose) as well as other polysaccharides such as raffinose and stacchiose found in legumes. Therefore it is helpful for digesting legumes and raw vegetables.

Amla – Also known as Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis) is an edible fruit that has one of the highest concentrations of natural vitamin C.

Amylase – An enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar. The pancreas makes one type of amylase called alpha amylase. Beta amylase is another type of amylase enzyme. *

Bacillus Coagulans – A spore-forming bacterium that is considered non-pathogenic to humans and safe to take in the form of a probiotic supplement. The dormant spores formed by the bacteria are very resistant to chemical (toxins, radiation) and physical (heat, freezing, drying) influences. The stomach acid activates the spores and they then multiply in the intestines and aid crowding out of harmful microorganisms such as yeast and fungi. The bacillus species in not a normal resident of the human digestive tract and it does not appear to persist in the body after cessation of the supplement. Research shows that it may be useful in prevention of antibiotic-associated side effects. These beneficial bacteria may also enhance the natural immune response to support joint mobility.

Bacillus Subtilis – These bacteria are the source for Nattokinase a popular proteolytic enzyme commonly used in systemic enzyme therapy. They can secrete large numbers of enzymes such as alpha-amylase, cellulose, dextrinase, maltase, proteases and beta glucanase. Research shows that Bacillus subtilis enhances the growth and/or viability of Lactobacilli.

Bifidobacteria bifidum – Gram-positive bacteria that are a natural part of the bacterial flora in a healthy human digestive tract. They help protect the body from harmful bacteria and support the immune system.

Bladderwrack – A type of brown seaweed also known as Kelp that is commonly used in Japan as a vegetable and has been shown to act as a thyroid tonic, soother of mucous membranes, and to assist in weight management.

Bromelain – A proteolytic enzyme found in the pineapple. Bromelain soothes the digestive tract

Caigua (Cyclanthera Pedata) – A small tropical vine from South America that is grown for its fruit to be eaten as a vegetable. It can support healthy cholesterol levels and normal blood pressure, balance blood sugar levels and support healthy urine output. It may also clean the arteries and aid digestion.

Calcium Citrate – A highly absorbable form of calcium; citrate has an acid base and calcium requires an acid environment for best absorption. Calcium is important for many functions in the body including bone and tooth formation, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, regulation of hormone and enzyme secretion and maintenance of blood pH, and electrolyte balance.

Californian nettle – A type of stinging nettle that can support joint mobility, aid detoxification and elimination and when applied locally can stop wound bleeding.

Cellulases – A general term for enzymes that break down cellulose (the fibre in plants). Humans do not make this enzyme. These enzymes also degrade chitin (a cellulose type fibre found in cell walls of the yeast species Candida).

Chromium – A mineral required by humans in trace amounts. It assists insulin in the uptake of glucose and can be useful for supporting blood sugar balance. It can also support healthy LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and triglyceride balance. It is found in different forms in supplements. Some controversy surrounds the picolinate form of chromium, but it is seen to be safe in small quantities of 200mcg a day. Polynicotinate is a more bio-available form of chromium that is commonly used in supplements.

Citric Acid – The substance responsible for the tart, sour taste of many fruits and is commonly found in citrus fruit, though it is also produced by the mould Aspergillus niger when it is fed sucrose or glucose. It is typically used as a preservative in food and supplements, bound to minerals to increase bioavailability of the supplement and in cleaning products as well as to soften water.

Coenzyme Q10 – An enzyme essential in the process of energy production in the mitochondria of the cells and is found to be the highest in heart and liver cells. It also acts as an antioxidant in the body sparing vitamin E and may offer immune support.

Fenugreek Seed – The seed of the fenugreek plant Trigonella foenum-graecum. It has been used traditionally as a spice and a medicine. Fenugreek seeds are a common ingredient in curry and are commonly used to promote production of breast milk, as a cholesterol and blood glucose balancer and supports healthy appetite. It is also soothing to the mucous membranes and has calming properties *

Folic Acid – Also called vitamin B9, is an important nutrient for numerous functions in the body including synthesis, repair and methylation of DNA; embryonic development of nervous tissue; for healthy red blood cell production; growth and development in children; and synthesis of serotonin, choline and norepinepherine.

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) – Belongs to the family of oligosaccharides and is commonly sourced from chicory but is also found in other foods such as bananas, onions, asparagus, garlic and barley. FOS is between 30-50% sweeter than sugar-syrups used commercially and is often used as a low calorie alternative to sugar. FOS also acts as a prebiotic by acting as food for the friendly bacteria in the intestines and thus promote their growth to keep the intestines and body healthy. It may also improve calcium absorption because the good bacteria in the intestines cause the FOS to ferment which lowers the pH making the intestinal environment more acidic for better calcium absorption.

Garcinia Cambogia Is an evergreen tree with an exotic fruit that grows in India and parts of Asia. It has many uses including assisting weight management by blocking an enzyme needed for storing excess carbohydrates as fat. The active ingredient is HCA (hydroxy citric acid). It also supports joint mobility , acts as an appetite suppressant, and a digestive tonic. ( See our range of Garcinia Cambogia )

Gelatin – A clear, colourless protein substance made from partially broken down collagen from the skin, connective tissue and bones of animals such as pigs, horses and cattle. It is used as a gelling agent in food and pharmaceutical manufacturing as well as in cosmetics and photography.

Ginger – Zingiber officinalis or ginger root is a rhizome which has been used traditionally as a spice and medicine. It is commonly used to support circulation, digestion, digestive calminative and muscle relaxant. It also reduces platelet aggregation and supports joint mobility *Digesticol

Glycerin/Glycerine – A thick, colourless, odourless liquid that has a sweet taste and is commonly used in foods, pharmaceutical and herbal products such as to extract the herbs in a tincture without the use of alcohol. It is a by-product of the soap making industry as well as the cooking and salad oil refining industry. It can be of either vegetable or animal origin depending on its source.

Glucoamylase – An enzyme that breaks the bonds at the ends of large carbohydrates (starches) such as amylose and amylopectin, releasing maltose and glucose.

Glucanases – A group of enzymes that breakdown glucans. Glucans are carbohydrates found in the cell walls of plants and fungi. Beta-glucanase helps degrade beta-linked glucose bonds typically found in grains, such as barley, oats and wheat.

Gugulipid (Commiphora Mukul) – A small tree originating from India, of which the gum resin is used medicinally for its health benefits including lipid-balancing effects,supports healthy cholesterol levels and joint mobility. It may also possess antioxidant properties.

Hemicellulase – Anenzyme that breaks down hemicelluloses; polysaccharides found in plant walls. It can be helpful for people who have trouble digesting vegetable matter.

Hercampuri (Gentianella Alborosea) – A plant originating from Peru that may assist in weight management, supports fluid balance , improve production and secretion of bile and supports healthy cholesterol levels.

Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Phthalate (HPMCP) – Used as an ingredient in enteric coating for dietary supplements and medications. Research shows that Phthlates have a feminizing affect on boys while in the womb if their mothers are exposed to Phthlates during pregnancy. HMCP may also be a carcinogen. Phthlates are also commonly used in the production of plastic and vinyl products.

Inulin – belongs to a group of polysaccharides found in the roots of many plants such as chicory and dandelion. It is a fibre that has probiotic properties, so acts as food for the beneficial bacteria in the intestines and is a common addition to many probiotic supplements.

Invertase – A sucrase enzyme that breaks down sucrose (table sugar) to fructose and glucose

Lactase – An enzyme that breaks down lactose (milk sugar) into galactose and glucose. Lactase is required for digestion of lactose in milk products and can therefore assist those who have lactose intolerance to digest dairy products.

Lactobacillus Bacteria – A genus of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that have a mutually beneficial relationship with their host (“friendly bacteria”) and make up a portion of the flora in the digestive tract. They help maintain a healthy bacterial balance in the human digestive system by production of lactic acid, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide which make the digestive environment less favourable for the growth of harmful microorganisms. Lactobacilli produce short-chain fatty acids that are a very bio-available energy source for the body and may have a protective effect on the intestines. Lactobacilli can also stimulate immune cells in digestive tract and can assist with the digestion of lactose in intolerant individuals.

– Lactobacillus Acidophilus bacteria produce lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide inhibiting growth of unwelcome microorganisms. They also secrete lactase which improves digestion of lactose (milk sugar). L.acidophilus can aid in the elimination of bad cholesterol from the body.

– Lactobacillus biffidus helps to make the environment more acidic making it uninhabitable for harmful microorganism.

– Lactobacillus brevis soothes and calms the digestive system

– Lactobacillus bulgaricus is resistant to very harsh environments and toxins and can withstand the high acid conditions of the stomach. It can aid the growth of other beneficial bacteria in the intestines and may also favourably influence peristaltic activity.

– Lactobacillus Casei can support the immune system function in humans and the body’s defences for the digestive system.

– Lactobacillus helveticus may support normal blood pressure, improve calcium absorption and healthy bone density

– Lactobacillus lactis

– Lactobacillus plantarum has been shown to soothe bowels and has been shown to be resistant to most antibiotics.

– Lactobacillus rhamnosus is able to survive in the harsh environments of the stomach and urinary tract.

Lactobacillus Sporogenes – now reclassified to the bacillus genus and renamed Bacillus Coagulans – see Bacillus Coagulans

L-Glutamine – An amino acid (amino acids are the building blocks for proteins in the body). It has numerous functions in the body such as a cellular energy source after glucose, regulator of pH balance in the kidneys, involved in DNA synthesis , important component of the gut wall and gut immunity. *Digesticol

L-Leucine – A branched chain amino acid and one of the essential amino acids to obtain in the diet as the human body does not make it. Leucine is important for the growth and repair of muscle tissue; blood sugar and energy regulation; wound healing; production of growth hormone and endorphins.

Lipase – An enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of dietary lipids (fats) and improves utilisation of fat in the body.

Lipoic Acid  A fatty acid that is found naturally within the cells and is a cofactor for many enzymes. It is a potent antioxidant that is unique because of its ability to perform in both water and fat environments. It can also regenerate/recycle other antioxidants such as vitamin C, E, CoQ10 and glutathione (an antioxidant that is very important for eliminating toxic substances from the body).

Maltase (diastase)  An enzyme that breaks maltose down to glucose (simple sugar) *Digesticol

Magnesium Citrate  A very bio-available form of magnesium; in the body magnesium is involved in the process of energy production, muscle relaxation, regulation of body temperature and nerve transmission as well as acting as a co-factor for many different enzymatic reactions.

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) – A naturally occurring sulfur compound that is present in many foods such as fresh fruit and vegetables, milk, fish and grains, but is destroyed by food processing. For use in dietary supplements, it is often synthesized to be identical to that found in nature. MSM is thought to support joint mobility and comfort.

Nattokinase – Afibrinolytic (fibrin degrading) enzyme first discovered in the Japanese fermented soybeans dish called ‘Natto’. This enzyme may break down scar tissue, cellular debris and non-living tissues in the body, cleansing the blood and freeing up restrictions. It may also promote production of plasmin (the body’s only blood clot fighting enzyme) and support healthy cholesterol.

Papain – Is a proteolytic enzyme found in papaya and mountain papaya. Papain has calming properties and supports the immune system and healing.

Pectinase – A general term for enzymes that breakdown pectin which is found in the cell walls of plants, especially many fruit and vegetables.

Pepditase  Any of a subclass of proteolytic (protein degrading) enzymes. See proteases above

Phytase – An enzyme that breaks down phytic acid or phytates found in grains and oil-producing seeds, to inositol and phosphate. This process releases calcium and other nutrients thereby assisting in their absorption.

Plantain – A common weed that grows in fields and along country roadsides. It supports fluid balance, joint mobility and the immune system. It also soothes mucous membranes, promotes wound healing, and can be applied locally to stop bleeding.

Potassium Bicarbonate – Is bicarbonate bound to potassium and has similar alkalinizing effects to sodium bicarbonate. It may also improve calcium absorption.

Prickly ash  A tall shrub found in North America that was traditionally used to relieve toothaches. It is commonly used to support circulation and temperature balance, and it also increases secretion of saliva.

Proteases (proteinase) – A group of enzymes that break proteins down into the individual amino acids. Research shows that proteolytic enzymes can break down undigested protein, cellular debris and toxins in the blood; help prevent accumulation of acid waste; degrade waste protein at a site of injury; it supports circulation and temperature balance ; relaxes muscles and supports the body’s response to allergens.

Riboflavin – see Vitamin B2

Rutin – Also called rutoside, is a bioflavonoid found in plants such as cranberries, buckwheat and asparagus. It has strong antioxidant properties and strengthens capillaries. It also enhances vitamin C.

Saccharomyces Boulardii – A non-pathogenic, non-colonizing yeast that has been shown to restore and maintain a natural balance of flora in the intestines.

Serrapeptase – An enzyme naturally produced by silk worms to break down their cocoon walls upon rebirth that is now produced by friendly bacteria in a laboratory. It has calming properties, degrades fibrin, scar tissue and other non-living tissue in the body and can be helpful in degrading mucus in the sinuses.

Sodium Bicarbonate – Also known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda is an alkalinizing agent. It is added to some antacids to help neutralize stomach acid. Sodium bicarbonate is a normal component of the human pancreatic juices and may improve the absorption of nutrients in the small intestines.

Sophora japonica – A small shrub originating from East Asia whose leaves the Chinese used to obtain rutin. It is a particularly rich source of Rutin.

Soy Lecithin – A fatty substance derived from soya beans and used as an emulsifier in the food industry and as a dietary supplement. It contains phosphatidylcholine which is the active constituent. Lecithin can support nerve cell formation, reduce oxidative damage to cell membranes, improve fat metabolism and support healthy blood cholesterol levels.

Vegetarian Pancreatin  A mixture of enzymes that resembles the human pancreatic digestive secretions released by the pancreas, but obtained from vegetarian sources. This enzyme blend contains the enzymes amylase, lipase and proteases.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) – One of the B-group vitamins and has many different roles in the body including the activation of vitamin B6 & B12, energy production, foetal growth and development, maintenance of mucus membranes, skin and eye tissues, red blood cell production, and metabolism of protein, carbohydrates and fats as well as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCL) – A water soluble vitamin belonging to the group of B vitamins that is important for many functions such as synthesis of neurotransmitters, breakdown and absorption of protein, carbohydrates, and fat, energy production, prostaglandin and vitamin B3 synthesis and menstrual support. In combination with other B vitamins it can also help to maintain healthy homocysteine levels.

Vitamin C (Ascorbyl Palmitate) – An essential vitamin that has so many important functions in the body such as improving wound healing, synthesis of collagen, carnitine and tyrosine, as an antioxidant, for the growth of bones and teeth, immune system support and aiding iron absorption.

Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol succinate) – The natural form of vitamin E which is more active and better absorbed. Vitamin E is a powerful fat soluble antioxidant that protects our cell membranes from free radical damage.

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-7) – Vitamin K is required for blood clotting, bone remineralisation, and calcium metabolism. It is responsible for depositing calcium in the right places and preventing vessel and soft tissue calcification and bone spur formation. It is also produced by the beneficial bacteria in the human intestinal tract.

Xylanase – A type of hemicellulase that breaks down hemicellulose or soluble fibre found in grains. This enzyme can also be helpful in breaking down food dyes and preservatives. Xylanase also appears to be a key enzyme responsible for breaking down the biofilm in the gut (a polysaccharide layer produced by resistant bacteria and yeasts to protect them from the harsh environment).

Reference for above statement: “Some Ways to Reduce the Toxic Exposure for Your Child (and the whole family)” Amy Derksen, ND Holistic Healing Arts 2101 112th Ave NE, Ste 110 Bellevue, WA P 425-709-2787 F 425-709-2789

Zinc Methionate – A macro mineral very important to the human body. Zinc is required as a cofactor for the functioning of more than 200 different enzymes including the important antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and several enzymes involved in protein and carbohydrate metabolism. It enhances immune system function such as improving wound healing and is essential for the synthesis of RNA & DNA and for a healthy reproductive system. Zinc assists in brain development and the manufacture of insulin and is required for the release of Vitamin A from the Liver.


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