Canned Tuna Fish

CANNED TUNA FISH

Instructor : Prof.Dr.HÜSEYİN BOZKURT Submitted by : Dilek KORKMAZ Necip Fazıl KOÇAK Başak KOÇ Sevcan KURTULUŞ Fatma KOÇ Ali MAZAM ALİ

HISTORY OF CANNED TUNA FISH ¡ Canning of tuna began late nineteenth century. ¡ World canned tuna production increased: from about 200 000 tonnes in the mid – 1970s to over 1 million tonnes by the early 2000s.

Why do we apply canning process for fishes? ¡ long shelf life ¡ to prevent microbial spoilage ¡ high profit

RAW MATERIALS ¡ Tuna fish (Thunnus albacares as type) ¡ Salt ¡ Oil

TUNA FISH (Thunnus albacares as type) • Weight; 136 kg-200kg •The yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is a species of tunafound in tropical water. •The best quality of light meat tuna is ensured by yellowfin, •Flesh is more solid and produces less waste •Yellowfin is also known as ‘light meat tuna’

Salt ¡ Why is it added? ¡ To give flavor. ¡ is used as preservative. ¡ decrease the moisture

Oil ¡ When oil is not added an equivalent amount of water replaces it . ¡ The oil should be; clear, free from mucilage, free from mould or other impurities free from moisture. pure, good and natural, not acrid, bitter

CCP of Process flow diagram Raw material, -20 °C Grading according to size Thawing,at 15 °C Nobbing CCP Washing with cold water CCP Precooking,102 °C Seaming Cooling Washing Seperation of skin,bones Sterilization;at 120 °C ,40 min CCP Packing of cans Labeling Adding salt,oil Storage

EQUIPMENTS FOR CANNING TUNA 1. Sawing machine 2. Pre-cooking machine 3. Filling machine 4. Automatically salt & oil adding machine 5. Seaming machine 6. Can washer with oil reclaimer 7. Retort 8. Labelling machine

Raw Material ¡ Tuna fishes are kept at -20 °C ¡ Temperature of protection room should be at 0 , +4 °C

Grading ¡ Fishes are calibrated according to sizes by laborers

Thawing ¡ Frozen tuna is thawed with running water at a temperature of 15 °C ¡ Temperature of fish should be 0-3 °C . ¡ Loss during thawing is 0.5-1.0%.

Nobbing,Cutting ¡ Head , tail and viscera of tuna are seperated by using sawing machine

Washing ¡ After cutting and nobbing,Fishes are washed with cold water.

PRE-COOKING ¡ At 102 °C with precooker machine ¡ to remove natural oils ¡ to loosen meat ¡ to develop desirable textural and flavour properties ¡ to facilitate seperation of bone and skin of fish ¡ Loss of weight is 22-26%.

Cooling ¡ Tuna is cooled thoroughly to firm the flesh before the manual cleaning operation can be performed. Loss of weight is approximately 3 – 5%.

Seperation of skin,bone and dark meat ¡ Tuna is individually cleaned. ¡ Red meat is then removed from each loin; the blood and dark meat are scraped away and the loins, edible flakes and waste products are separated

Packing in cans ¡ The cut loins are then filled into cans by tuna filler machines

Adding salt and oil ¡ The open cans next pass the line where additives such as salt and oil are added ¡ They first have dry salt added after which the oil is added ¡ Oil should be added slowly over a sufficient stretch of the line to permit its thorough absorbtion by the tuna meat

SEAMING ¡ used to seal the lid (end) to the can body ¡ mechanically overlapping the two layers to form a hook. ¡ closing under vacuum ¡ hermetically sealing will be protected from recontamination

Washing of Cans ¡ Washing cans after being sealed ¡ The oil separation is carried out by decanting.

Sterilization (retorting machine) ¡ Used to sterilize the cans at 120 °C 40 min ¡ Use saturated steam

LABELLING ¡ After the sterilization, Cans are labelled that contain picture of fishes,name of product, nutrition value, organization name and adress etc.

Storage v Canned tuna, shelf life is 1 -4 years v Storage temperature is room temperature

LABORATORY ANALYSIS Sensory analysis Chemical analysis ¡ pH : 4.0 – 6.9 ¡ Color ¡ Chlorine determination :% 2.5 in ¡ Flavor fish flesh ¡ Smell ¡ Histamine : 200 mg/kg ¡ Texture Physical analysis Microbiologic analysis ¡ Water content in oil : max %6 ¡ Mesophile count ¡ Drained weight : 70 % (m/m) ¡ Thermophile count ¡ Headspace: max %6 ¡ Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial count ¡ Thermophilic anaerobicbacteria count

The Processing Factors That Most Affect Quality In the Fish Industry are; ¡ Time ¡ Temperature ¡ Contamination ¡ Damage or deterioration ¡ Hygiene and sanitation ¡ Equipment and methods ¡ Packing for product appeal ¡ Correctness of fill

Finish product ¡ – The fish sequence, colour, appearance, uniform, and box contents should own unique smell and taste when fish tin is opened. ¡ – There must not be any visible foreign matter in tins. ¡ – For the tuna fish tins, fishes must be put into the tins in state of small pieces.

FISH ENERGY PROTEIN OIL WATER ASH (100 g) (kcal) (g) (g) (g) (g) TUNA 108 23.38 0.95 70.99 1.34

BY PRODUCT ¡ canned and frozen pet food ¡ minced frozen fish ¡ fish silage for animal feeding ¡ and fish meal directly as fertilizer, produce gelatin from skin and bone ¡ Quality of the by-products depends on; the freshness of raw material, their fat content and nutritional value. ¡ Oil can be recovered from the canning process however this should only be used for industrial purposes.

By product By-product yield from Tuna canning operations Pet food 4-6% Fish meal 30-35% Industriol

Thanks to, Prof. Dr. Hüseyin BOZKURT For helps…

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