Bread Making Process ( Bhupendar Khatkar )

UNIT 1: BREAD MAKING PROCESS

STRUCTURE

1.0 OBJECTIVES

1.1 STATUS OF BAKING INDUSTRY

1.2 BREAD FORMULATION

1.3 BREAD MAKING PROCEDURE

1.4 FUNCTIONS OF MIXING

1.5 TYPES OF MIXERS

1.6 FUNCTIONS OF MOULDING AND DIVIDING

1.7 FUNCTIONS OF PROVING

1.8 CHANGES DURING MIXING, FERMENTATION AND BAKING

1.9 SUMMARY

1.10 KEY WORDS

1.11 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

1.12 SUGGESTED READINGS

1.0 OBJECTIVES

Thorough study of this unit will enable the reader to understand:
• Status of baking industry
• Bread making procedure
• Types of mixers
• Functions of mixing, moulding, dividing and proving
• Changes during mixing, fermentation and baking

1.1 STATUS OF BAKING INDUSTRY

India is the 2nd largest wheat producing country in the world next only to China. The present production of wheat in India is about 72 million tonnes indicating 6-fold increase in the three decade due to onset of green revolution. The five major wheat producing states in India are U.P., Punjab, Haryana, Bihar and Himachal Pradesh. Unlike in other economically developed nations, bulk of the wheat produced in our country is processed into whole wheat flour for use in various traditional products. About 10 per cent of the total wheat produced is processed into different products like maida, suji, atta, etc. in roller flour mill, which forms the main raw material for bakery and pasta industry. In spite of small quantities of wheat processed in a roller flourmill for use in bakery products, milling and baking industry still remains the largest organised food industry in the country. The turnover of the milling and baking industry is over 4500 crores and likely to increase at a decent rate
in the near future.

1.1.1 MILLING INDUSTRY

Milling industry is the oldest and largest agro based industry in the country with an annual turn over of Rs. 2500 crores. There are about 900 roller flour mills in the country producing various milled products. The yield of different products varies depending on their demand which varies from state to state. In northern part of the country, maximum amount of maida and atta are extracted, as there is more demand for maida and atta. However, in southern India the demand for maida and suji is greater. Due to delicencing policy of the government, the number of roller flour mills has considerably increased in recent years. Originally mills were located only in wheat growing areas, which later shifted to port towns where imported wheats are unloaded, but now these have spreaded throughout the country. It is of interest to note that 75% of the mills are now in non-wheat growing areas. The capacity of the industry registered with the government is close to 75 million tonnes, which is 11⁄2 times the production of wheat. Capacity of most of the mills at present are under utilised as indicated by the fact that only 7 to 8 million tonnes of wheat is processed, though the installed capacity is 15 million tonnes. During the last 6 to 7 years, the installed capacity and wheat processed remained almost constant. The grinding capacity of units range from 30 to 200 tonnes. However, 80% of the total units have the capacity lower than 100 tonnes/day. The industry in India has reached a turning point and is faced with technical and financial problems. This is because of the decontrol and delicencing policy of the government. Earlier millers had to buy wheat from FCI and sell the products to the nominees of the government. But now the millers are allowed to buy wheat from the open market, hence, they are faced with lack of infrastructure for bulk purchase and storage so as to maintain steady supply of wheat to the mills. Low priority on railways booking for wheat, fixing the stock limit for mills, restriction on financing by relative credit control are some of the other problems. The decontrol policy has resulted in stiff competition among the mills situated in southern non wheat growing states and northern states, where wheat is easily available at reasonable cost at all times. This has resulted in increase in the number of sick units and also under capacity utilisation of several mills. The delicencing system has contributed further to this problem as several new mills have been started though demand for the products remained the same. This situation changed the wheat products from sellers market to buyers market. Hence, the milling industry has to change and consider milling as a more scientific method rather than traditional system. Hence, only mills, which produce and supply quality products at competitive price, could survive at the present circumstances. Hence, improvement in the technology is necessary to obtain quality of products as well as productivity. To survive in this competitive market, the milling industries should be supplying specific type of flours required by the bakery industry.

Source: http://www.ddegjust.ac.in/studymaterial/pgdbst/pgdbst-05.pdf

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