Additives in Sausages

SAUSAGES

FOOD ADDITIVES-ARE THEY SAFE?

A food additive is a substance or mixture of substances,which is present in a food as a result of any aspect of production,processing,storage or packaging.

As much as we may not like the idea,food additives play a role in today’s food supply

WHAT ARE FOOD ADDITIVES USED FOR?

Improve the keeping quality or stability

Improve the taste or appearance

Preserve food

TYPES OF SAUSAGES

FRESH SAUSAGE

COOKED SAUSAGE

FERMENTED SAUSAGE

COOKED SMOKED SAUSAGE

FRESH SMOKED SAUSAGE

DRY SAUSAGE

FRESH SAUSAGE PRODUCTION

Not heat treated,sold in a raw state

Not cured,mixture of;meats,fat,spices and seasonings

Most common seasonings;salt,dextrose,red pepper,sage,chili,garlic,ginger,lemon bark,onion,cinnamon,monosodium glutamate,celery salt etc.

Shelf Life Of Fresh Sausages

They should be handled with special care

Should be kept at a temperature 0-4 C

Storage life at refrigerator temp. Above freezing is 2-4 days

Freezing protects the product against bacterial spoilage,but not against oxidative rancidity assisted by the catalytic activity of salt

Types Of Fresh Sausages

Fresh Pork Sausages

Fresh Beef Sausages For Grilling

Curry Beef-Mutton Sausages

Sausage Burger(Hamburger)

Merguez(all beef sausage find in many North African countries)

Formulation of Fresh Beef Sausage For Grilling

Basic ingredients for 100 kg

85 to 90 kg lean beef or lean beef trimmings (one-third beef may be substituted by mutton, if desired)
10 to 15 kg selected beef or mutton fat
0.5 to 3.0 kg rusk is sometimes added to improve binding
2 to 3 kg salted water may also be added to facilitate stuffing

Characteristic seasoning formula per 1 kg

20.0 g salt
0.5 to 1.0 g red pepper
0.01 to 0.02 g chili
0.2 to 0.6 g cardamom
0.2 g ginger
0.1 to 0.5 g fenugreek
0.2 to 0.6 g sugar

FERMENTED SAUSAGE PRODUCTION

The characteristic properties of fermented sausages are completely dependent on fermentative action of certain types of bacteria

Two types:Semidry or quickly fermented and Dry or slowly fermented sausages

There are both hard and soft types in both groups

Operations in Fermented Sausage Production

Choice of raw material

Grinding,Chopping and Mixing

Stuffing

Treatment prior to smoking

SMOKED PRECOOKED SAUSAGE PRODUCTION

They are smoked and/or air heated

Often cured but not fermented

They are heterogenous class of sausages

TYPES OF SMOKED PRECOOKED SAUSAGES

SMOKED PORK SAUSAGES

PRECOOKED PORK SAUSAGES

SMOKED BEEF SAUSAGES

PRECOOKED BEEF SAUSAGES

Formulation of Smoked Beef Sausages

Basic ingredients for 100 kg

40 kg lean beef
20 kg mutton
20 kg beef trimmings
20 kg zebu boss or beef brisket fat or mutton tail fat

Characteristic seasoning formula per 1 kg

22.0 g nitrite salt for curing

l0.5 g chili
5.0 g red pepper
0.3 g garlic
0.2 g cinnamon
1.0 g ground pepper
0.5 g sugar

COOKED SAUSAGE PRODUCTION

The manufacture of cooked sausages is a natural adjunct to any meat selling and processing business. Cooked sausages offer an outlet in attractive and palatable form for a variety of raw materials such as edible portions of heads, mutton, pork or beef trimmings, blood, hearts, tripe, livers, lungs, pork stomachs, tongues, various fat materials including those of zebu cattle boss or mutton fat tail as well as other cured or uncured meats that are difficult to dispose of in any other way.

Cooked sausages are distinguished from other sausage categories not only on the basis of variety of materials used in their formulations but also by parboiling or partial cooking of most of these raw materials prior to grinding or chopping. Special care should be paid to eliminate factors enhancing oxidative changes.

KEEPING QUALITY AND DELIVERY OF SAUSAGES TO RETAILERS

The complexity of the sausage nutritional and flavouring picture causes special relationships between customers and their sausage suppliers. The customer needs to know what effects the sausages have for his health and what price he is obliged to pay.

KEEPING QUALITY

The major concern of meat processing is the development of safe sausage products through the rational use of raw materials, adequate processing methods and maximum performance of hygienic requirements.

The meat raw materials should be free from toxigenic and pathogenic organisms

They must be boned, trimmed, ground, chopped and processed at a temperature at which significant growth of these organisms is unlikely to occur

The time of processing at an undesirable temperature should be shortened

The selection for sausage manufacture of sound good quality meats and other raw materials

The observance of reasonable standards of hygiene during all stage of the process

The growth of microorganisms in meats and in finished sausages is affected by

Processing temperature

Available water and its activity in meat

Oxygen

pH-value

salt and nitrite contents

Temperature.

To increase sausage shelf life is to lower the temperature of all rooms need in the processing, and storage of meats and sausages

Where there is a lack of such conditions, it may be necessary to work at temperatures at which bacterial growth

Good shelf life and other quality characteristics of finished sausages result from the hygienic conditions present during processing, including hygiene of personnel, methods of processing applied which inhibit microbiological activity

Water activity.

The state of water in sausages has a direct effect on microbial, chemical and enzymatic reactions.

So,the amount of water required for microbial growth may considerably be reduced and the sausage product shelf life increased

The main forms of sausage spoilage and deterioration

The excessive proliferation of bacteria in the sausage content

The excessive growth of moulds on the sausage surface

The oxidative deterioration of sausage fat causing product rancidity

The excessive dehydration of sausage superficial layers including casings.

To ensure maximum spoilage control, the sausages should be held at temperatures as follows:

A)Fresh and smoked precooked sausages: at 0–4°C for 2–4 days; if frozen, they have to be kept no longer than a week; if no refrigeration is applied, sausages should be consumed within several hours;

B)Emulsion-type sausages: at 0–4°C for 3–5 days or at below 10°C for 1–2 days; if frozen they have to be kept no longer than 6–10 days; if sausages are not refrigerated they should be consumed within 8–12 hours;

C)Semidry sausages: at below 15°C for 10–15 days; if the sausages are held without refrigeration in a dry ventilated place, their shelf life will be several days;

D)Dry sausages: should be kept well protected from air humidity and circulation in a cool dark place.

SAUSAGE RETAIL PACKAGES

COMMONLY USED FOOD ADDITIVES IN SAUSAGES

NITRITES and NITRATES

They are antimicrobials or preservetives

Sodium Nitrite,NaNO2:Pale,to slightly yellow granular powder,or white,opaque,fused masses or sticks.1 g dissolves in abaut 1.5 ml of water,sparingly soluble in alcohol

Potassium Nitrite,KNO2:Small white or yellow deliquescent granules or cylindrical sticks.Very soluble in water

Sodium Nitrate,NaNO3:Colorless,white granules or powder.1 g dissolves in 1.1 ml water and in 125 ml alcohol

Potassium Nitrate,KNO3:White granular or crystalline powder.1 g dissolves in 2.8 ml water or in 620 ml alcohol

200 ppm is  the max level

May have carcinogenic effect

SODIUM POLYPHOSPHATES

Used as stabilizator

There is no living organism known that can synthesize the phosphate anion.Therefore is absorbed through the food supply

The polyphosphates have played a vital role in the origin of life

SODIUM ASCORBATE

Used as antioxidant

It is the sodium salt of vitamin C

MONO SODIUM GLUTAMATE        

Used as flavor enhancer

A salt of the amino acid glutamic acid

GRAS but negative effects may appear when eaten in large amounts


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